This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Walsura robusta
(3α,24S)-20,24-Epoxydammarane-3,25-diol/Dammarane-3,25-diol, 20,24-epoxy-, (3α,24S)-
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
533.6±15.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:67253-01-4) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The aim of this study was to assess the lifetime economic benefits of assisted reproduction in Spain by calculating the return on this investment. We developed a generational accounting model that simulates the flow of taxes paid by the individual, minus direct government transfers received over the individual’s lifetime. The difference between discounted transfers and taxes minus the cost of either IVF or artificial insemination (AI) equals the net fiscal contribution (NFC) of a child conceived through assisted reproduction. We conducted sensitivity analysis to test the robustness of our results under various macroeconomic scenarios. A child conceived through assisted reproduction would contribute €370,482 in net taxes to the Spanish Treasury and would receive €275,972 in transfers over their lifetime. Taking into account that only 75% of assisted reproduction pregnancies are successful, the NFC was estimated at €66,709 for IVF-conceived children and €67,253 for AI-conceived children. The return on investment for each euro invested was €15.98 for IVF and €18.53 for AI. The long-term NFC of a child conceived through assisted reproduction could range from €466,379 to €-9,529 (IVF) and from €466,923 to €-8,985 (AI). The return on investment would vary between €-2.28 and €111.75 (IVF), and €-2.48 and €128.66 (AI) for each euro invested. The break-even point at which the financial position would begin to favour the Spanish Treasury ranges between 29 and 41 years of age. Investment in assisted reproductive techniques may lead to positive discounted future fiscal revenue, notwithstanding its beneficial psychological effect for infertile couples in Spain.
generational accounting, health economics, health investment, IVF, live birth
Long-term fiscal implications of funding assisted reproduction: a generational accounting model for Spain
R. Matorras,a,b,c R. Villoro,d A. Gonzalez-Dominguez,d S. Perez-Camarero,d A. Hidalgo-Vega,e and C. Polancof,⁎
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by a neurodegenerative progression that alters cognition. On a phenotypical level, cognition is evaluated by means of the MiniMental State Examination (MMSE) and the post-morten examination of Neurofibrillary Tangle count (NFT) helps to confirm an AD diagnostic. The MMSE evaluates different aspects of cognition including orientation, short-term memory (retention and recall), attention and language. As there is a normal cognitive decline with aging, and death is the final state on which NFT can be counted, the identification of brain gene expression biomarkers from these phenotypical measures has been elusive.
We have reanalysed a microarray dataset contributed in 2004 by Blalock et al. of 31 samples corresponding to hippocampus gene expression from 22 AD subjects of varying degree of severity and 9 controls. Instead of only relying on correlations of gene expression with the associated MMSE and NFT measures, and by using modern bioinformatics methods based on information theory and combinatorial optimization, we uncovered a 1,372-probe gene expression signature that presents a high-consensus with established markers of progression in AD. The signature reveals alterations in calcium, insulin, phosphatidylinositol and wnt-signalling. Among the most correlated gene probes with AD severity we found those linked to synaptic function, neurofilament bundle assembly and neuronal plasticity.
A transcription factors analysis of 1,372-probe signature reveals significant associations with the EGR/KROX family of proteins, MAZ, and E2F1. The gene homologous of EGR1, zif268, Egr-1 or Zenk, together with other members of the EGR family, are consolidating a key role in the neuronal plasticity in the brain. These results indicate a degree of commonality between putative genes involved in AD and prion-induced neurodegenerative processes that warrants further investigation.
Uncovering Molecular Biomarkers That Correlate Cognitive Decline with the Changes of Hippocampus' Gene Expression Profiles in Alzheimer's Disease
Martin Gomez Ravetti, 1 , 2 , 3 Osvaldo A. Rosso, 1 , 2 , 4 Regina Berretta, 1 , 2 and Pablo Moscato 1 , 2 , 3 , *
Corrigenda: Mullins PL, Kawada R, Balhoff JP, Deans AR (2012) A revision of Evaniscus (Hymenoptera, Evaniidae) using ontology-based semantic phenotype annotation. ZooKeys 223: 1-38, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.223.3572
Patricia L. Mullins,1,2 Rico Kawada,3 James P. Balhoff,4,5 and Andrew R. Deans1,6