This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Aglaia lawii
(24S)-25-Hydroxy-20,24-epoxydammaran-3-one/Dammaran-3-one, 20,24-epoxy-25-hydroxy-, (24S)-
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
531.5±15.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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Species of eucalypts are commonly cultivated for solid wood and pulp products. The expansion of commercially managed eucalypt plantations has chiefly been driven by their rapid growth and suitability for propagation across a very wide variety of sites and climatic conditions. Infection of foliar fungal pathogens of eucalypts is resulting in increasingly negative impacts on commercial forest industries globally. To assist in evaluating this threat, the present study provides a global perspective on foliar pathogens of eucalypts. We treat 110 different genera including species associated with foliar disease symptoms of these hosts. The vast majority of these fungi have been grown in axenic culture, and subjected to DNA sequence analysis, resolving their phylogeny. During the course of this study several new genera and species were encountered, and these are described. New genera include: Lembosiniella (L. eucalyptorum on E. dunnii, Australia), Neosonderhenia (N. eucalypti on E. costata, Australia), Neothyriopsis (N. sphaerospora on E. camaldulensis, South Africa), Neotrichosphaeria (N. eucalypticola on E. deglupta, Australia), Nothotrimmatostroma (N. bifarium on E. dalrympleana, Australia), Nowamyces (incl. Nowamycetaceae fam. nov., N. globulus on E. globulus, Australia), and Walkaminomyces (W. medusae on E. alba, Australia). New species include (all from Australia): Disculoides fraxinoides on E. fraxinoides, Elsinoe piperitae on E. piperita, Fusculina regnans on E. regnans, Marthamyces johnstonii on E. dunnii, Neofusicoccum corticosae on E. corticosa, Neotrimmatostroma dalrympleanae on E. dalrympleana, Nowamyces piperitae on E. piperita, Phaeothyriolum dunnii on E. dunnii, Pseudophloeospora eucalyptigena on E. obliqua, Pseudophloeospora jollyi on Eucalyptus sp., Quambalaria tasmaniae on Eucalyptus sp., Q. rugosae on E. rugosa, Sonderhenia radiata on E. radiata, Teratosphaeria pseudonubilosa on E. globulus and Thyrinula dunnii on E. dunnii. A new name is also proposed for Heteroconium eucalypti as Thyrinula uruguayensis on E. dunnii, Uruguay. Although many of these genera and species are commonly associated with disease problems, several appear to be opportunists developing on stressed or dying tissues. For the majority of these fungi, pathogenicity remains to be determined. This represents an important goal for forest pathologists and biologists in the future. Consequently, this study will promote renewed interest in foliar pathogens of eucalypts, leading to investigations that will provide an improved understanding of the biology of these fungi.
Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Foliar pathogen, New taxa, Taxonomy
Foliar pathogens of eucalypts
P.W. Crous,1,2,∗ M.J. Wingfield,2,3 R. Cheewangkoon,4 A.J. Carnegie,5,6 T.I. Burgess,2,7 B.A. Summerell,8 J. Edwards,9,10 P.W.J. Taylor,11 and J.Z. Groenewald1
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection which continues to be the most common sexually transmitted disease, has been identified as a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Therefore, it is very important to understand and grasp the distribution of HPV in Chinese population, and make the foundation for the development of cervical cancer vaccine in China. An extensive search strategy was conducted in multiple literature databases. All retrieved studies were screened by October 31, 2018. The prevalence of HPV infection was analyzed using random effects model. A total of 68 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria for our study. The national overall prevalence of HPV infection was 15.54% (95% CI: 13.83%‐17.24%). we also performed subgroup analysis by age, geographic location, level of economic development, HPV assay method, and type of HPV infection. The top 5 common HPV types detected in general population, were HPV 16 (3.52%, 95% CI: 3.18%‐3.86%), 52 (2.20%, 95% CI: 1.93%‐2.46%), 58 (2.10%, 95% CI: 1.88%‐2.32%), 18 (1.20%, 95% CI: 1.05%‐1.35%), and 33 (1.02%, 95% CI: 0.89%‐1.14%). Except for the higher prevalence of HPV infection in 2009 and 2010, the prevalence of HPV infection in other years changed little, ranged from 13.2% to 17.4%. HPV type in Chinese women was quite distinctive. HPV infection played a critical role in the occurrence of cervical cancer, understanding the distribution of HPV type and performing the HPV type testing had important clinical value for colposcopy referral and increasing the detection rate. Therefore, our findings could provide evidence for cervical cancer screening and vaccine, in order to reduce the burden of cervical cancer.
China, distribution, general population, HPV
The prevalence, trends, and geographical distribution of human papillomavirus infection in China: The pooled analysis of 1.7 million women
Bo Zhu, 1 Yunyong Liu, 1 Tingting Zuo, 1 Xiaoli Cui, 2 Mengdan Li, 1 Jing Zhang, 2 Huihui Yu, 1 and Haozhe Piaocorresponding author 1
Medicaid is the largest primary health insurance for low-income populations in the United States, and it provides comprehensive benefits to cover treatment and services costs for chronic diseases, including diabetes. The standardized per capita spending on diabetes by Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in the fee-for-service program in Hawaii increased from 2012 to 2015. We examined the difference in odds of diabetes between Medicaid and non-Medicaid populations in major racial/ethnic groups in Hawaii.
We used data from 2013 through 2015 from the Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in this cross-sectional study to compare the difference in risk for self-reported diabetes between Medicaid (n = 1,889) and non-Medicaid (n = 17,207) beneficiaries. We used multivariate logistic regression models that could accommodate the complex sampling design to examine the difference in odds of diabetes between the 2 populations.
In Hawaii, the Medicaid population was younger, was less educated, had more health impairments, and was more likely to be obese and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (NH/OPI) than the non-Medicaid population. The unadjusted prevalence of diabetes in the Medicaid population in Hawaii was higher than that for the non-Medicaid population (10.3% vs 8.9%, P = .02). After adjusting for confounding variables, the odds of diabetes in the Medicaid population was still significantly higher than those in the non-Medicaid population (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-2.31). Adjusted analysis stratified by race/ethnicity showed that non-Hispanic Asian (AOR = 2.23; 95% CI, 1.31-3.78) and NH/OPI (AOR = 3.17; 95% CI, 1.05-9.54) Medicaid beneficiaries had significantly higher odds of diabetes than their non-Medicaid counterparts.
The odds of diabetes was significantly higher among the Hawaii Medicaid population than among the non-Medicaid population. Diabetes prevention programs should address the challenges and barriers that the Medicaid population faces. Our findings can be used to promote culturally competent diabetes education programs.
Risk of Diabetes Mellitus Among Medicaid Beneficiaries in Hawaii
Dongmei Li, PhD,corresponding author 1 Chuan C. Chinn, PhD, 2 Ritabelle Fernandes, MD, MPH, 2 Christina M.B. Wang, MPH, RN, 2 Myra D. Smith, MPH, 2 and Rebecca Rude Ozaki, PhD 2