Panax ginseng,Camellia sinensis,Euonymus alatus,Abelmoschus esculentus,Camellia sinensis var. assamica
1H-Purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-/Stim/7-methyl Theophylline/Theophylline, 7-methyl/No-Doz/trimethylxanthine//CAFFEINMiudol/3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione/Theine/Kofein/tirend/guaranine/COFFEIN/THEIN/1,3,7-TRIMETHYLXANTHINE/Nodaca/1,3,7-Trimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione/7-methyltheophylline/Xanthine, 1,3,7-trimethyl/1-methyl-Theobromine/Caffeine
Methanol; Dichloromethane; Ethyl Acetate; Acetone; Chloroform; Water
416.8±37.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:58-08-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Caffeine use is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly concentration and memory enhancement and physical performance improvement. Coffee and caffeine-containing products affect the cardiovascular system, with their positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, and the central nervous system, with their locomotor activity stimulation and anxiogenic-like effects. Thus, it is of interest to examine whether these effects could be detrimental for health. Furthermore, caffeine abuse and dependence are becoming more and more common and can lead to caffeine intoxication, which puts individuals at risk for premature and unnatural death. The present review summarizes the main findings concerning caffeine’s mechanisms of action (focusing on adenosine antagonism, intracellular calcium mobilization, and phosphodiesterases inhibition), use, abuse, dependence, intoxication, and lethal effects. It also suggests that the concepts of toxic and lethal doses are relative, since doses below the toxic and/or lethal range may play a causal role in intoxication or death. This could be due to caffeine’s interaction with other substances or to the individuals’ preexisting metabolism alterations or diseases.
Abuse; caffeine; coffee; dependence; energy drinks; safety doses; toxicity
Caffeine: cognitive and physical performance enhancer or psychoactive drug?
Cappelletti S1, Piacentino D, Sani G2, Aromatario M1.
There has been recent interest in the ergogenic effects of caffeine delivered in low doses (~ 200 mg or ~ 3 mg/kg body mass) and administered in forms other than capsules, coffee and sports drinks, including chewing gum, bars, gels, mouth rinses, energy drinks and aerosols. Caffeinated chewing gum is absorbed quicker through the buccal mucosa compared with capsule delivery and absorption in the gut, although total caffeine absorption over time is not different. Rapid absorption may be important in many sporting situations. Caffeinated chewing gum improved endurance cycling performance, and there is limited evidence that repeated sprint cycling and power production may also be improved. Mouth rinsing with caffeine may stimulate nerves with direct links to the brain, in addition to caffeine absorption in the mouth. However, caffeine mouth rinsing has not been shown to have significant effects on cognitive performance. Delivering caffeine with mouth rinsing improved short-duration, high-intensity, repeated sprinting in normal and depleted glycogen states, while the majority of the literature indicates no ergogenic effect on aerobic exercise performance, and resistance exercise has not been adequately studied. Studies with caffeinated energy drinks have generally not examined the individual effects of caffeine on performance, making conclusions about this form of caffeine delivery impossible. Caffeinated aerosol mouth and nasal sprays may stimulate nerves with direct brain connections and enter the blood via mucosal and pulmonary absorption, although little support exists for caffeine delivered in this manner. Overall, more research is needed examining alternate forms of caffeine delivery including direct measures of brain activation and entry of caffeine into the blood, as well as more studies examining trained athletes and female subjects.
Administration of Caffeine in Alternate Forms.
Wickham KA1, Spriet LL2.
Caffeine is the most widely used psychostimulant in Western countries, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), caffeine is beneficial in both men and women, in humans and animals. Similar effects of caffeine were observed in men with Parkinson’s disease (PD); however, the effect of caffeine in female PD patients is controversial due to caffeine’s competition with estrogen for the estrogen-metabolizing enzyme, CYP1A2. Studies conducted in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) showed protective effects of A2A R antagonism. A study found caffeine to be associated with earlier age of onset of Huntington’s disease (HD) at intakes >190 mg/d, but studies in animal models have found equivocal results. Caffeine is protective in AD and PD at dosages equivalent to 3-5 mg/kg. However, further research is needed to investigate the effects of caffeine on PD in women. As well, the effects of caffeine in ALS, HD and Machado-Joseph disease need to be further investigated. Caffeine’s most salient mechanisms of action relevant to neurodegenerative diseases need to be further explored.
© 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Alzheimer disease; Huntington disease; Parkinson disease; adenosine receptor; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; caffeine; dosage; neurodegenerative disease; neuroprotection
The neuroprotective effects of caffeine in neurodegenerative diseases.
Kolahdouzan M1,2, Hamadeh MJ1,2.
Anxiolytic-like, stimulant and neuroprotective effects of Ilex paraguariensis extracts in mice. PUMID/DOI：25681522 Neuroscience. 2015 Feb 11. pii: S0306-4522(15)00146-3. Overall, our results indicate the importance of the I. paraguariensis-induced CNS effects, since it is a widely used nutraceutical. We have reported anxiolytic, stimulant and neuroprotective effects for this plant species. These effects are potentially modulated by the cholinergic system as well as by Caffeine.