L-(-)-Carnitine/(-)-L-Carnitin/3-Carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium Hydroxide Inner Salt/L(-)-Carnitine/(R)-Carnitine/Carnitine, L-/3-Hydroxy-4-trimethylammoniobutanoate/(L-3-Carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt/Ammonium, (3-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethyl-, hydroxide, inner salt, L-/Carnitine DL-form/L-Carnitine/BICARNESINE/3-Hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate/Cardiogen/g-Trimethylammonium-b-hydroxybutirate/4-Copab/Monocamin/L-Carnitine inner salt/1-Propanaminium, 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt/g-Trimethyl-b-hydroxybutyrobetaine/(-)-Carnitine/(3R)-3-Hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate/DL-Carnitine/(-)-(R)-3-Hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio)butyrate/carnitine (L-form)/Levocarnitine/g-Amino-b-hydroxybutyric Acid Trimethylbetaine/(R)-3-Carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-1-propanaminium hydroxide inner salt/(−)-(R)-3-Hydroxy-4-(trimethylammonio)butyrate/γ-Trimethyl-β-hydroxybutyrobetaine/Carnitine, (-)-/D,L-carnitine/(±)-carnitine/1-Propanaminium, 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt, (2R)-/carnitine
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:406-76-8) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The aim of this study was to investigate carnitine action against negative effects of etoposide on stem/progenitor spermatogonia and on sperm production. Carnitine (250 mg/kg body weight/day) and etoposide (5 mg/kg body weight/day) were administered from 25-days postpartum to 32-days postpartum. Testes were collected at 32-days postpartum, 64-days postpartum, and 127-days postpartum, and submitted to the immuno-labeling of UTF1, SOX2, and PLZF proteins to identify undifferentiated spermatogonia populations. At 127-days postpartum, sperm were collected for analysis. Carnitine+etoposide group showed a higher numerical density of spermatogonia labeled for all studied proteins at 64-days postpartum (critical age) compared to the etoposide group. Moreover, there was an improvement of spermatic parameters and sperm DNA integrity in rats of the carnitine+etoposide group in comparison with rats of the etoposide group. The results suggest that carnitine improves the self-renewal of undifferentiated spermatogonia and promotes a partial protection on them, alleviating the etoposide harmful late effects and leading to an enhancement of the sperm parameters in adulthood.
DNA integrity; cancer; carnitine; cell protector; chemotherapeutic agent; etoposide; pre-puberty; sperm; spermatogonia stem cell
Carnitine Diminishes Etoposide Toxic Action on Spermatogonial Self-renewal and Sperm Production in Adult Rats Treated in the Prepubertal Phase.
Okada FK1, Stumpp T1, Miraglia SM1.
2020 Mar 31
Huntington’s disease (HD), caused by an expanded CAG repeat at HTT, has no treatment, and biomarkers are needed for future clinical trials.
The objective of this study was to verify if free carnitine and branched chain amino acids levels behave as potential biomarkers in HD.
Symptomatic and asymptomatic HD carriers and controls were recruited. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), age of onset, disease duration, UHDRS scores, and expanded CAG tract were obtained; valine, leucine, isoleucine, and free carnitine were measured. Baseline and longitudinal analysis were performed.
Seventy-four symptomatic carriers, 20 asymptomatic carriers, and 22 non-carriers were included. At baseline, valine levels were reduced in symptomatic and asymptomatic HD carriers when compared to non-carriers. No difference in free carnitine or isoleucine+leucine levels were observed between groups. BMI of symptomatic individuals was lower than those of non-carriers. Valine levels correlated with BMI. Follow-up evaluation was performed in 43 symptomatic individuals. UHDRS total motor score increased 4.8 points/year on average. No significant reductions in BMI or valine were observed, whereas free carnitine and isoleucine+leucine levels increased.
Although valine levels were lower in HD carriers and were related to BMI losses observed in pre-symptomatic individuals, none of these metabolites seem to be biomarkers for HD.
Free carnitine and branched chain amino acids are not good biomarkers in Huntington's disease.
Castilhos RM1,2,3, Augustin MC4,2, Santos JAD4,2, Pedroso JL5, Barsottini O5, Saba R5, Ferraz HB5, Vargas FR6,7, Furtado GV1,8, Polese-Bonatto M9,10, Rodrigues LP11,8, Sena LS1, Vargas CR9,12,13,10, Saraiva-Pereira ML1,9,11,14,8,10,2, Jardim LB1,15,4,8,10,2,3, Neurogenetica R2.