Rosmarinus officinalis,Salvia plebeia,Salvia japonica
(7β)-11,12-Dihydroxy-7,20-epoxyabieta-8,11,13-trien-20-one/(7β)-11,12-Dihydroxy-7,20-epoxyabieta-8(14),9(11),12-trien-20-one/2H-9,4a-(Epoxymethano)phenanthren-12-one, 1,3,4,9,10,10a-hexahydro-5,6-dihydroxy-1,1-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-, (4aR,9S,10aS)-/Carnosol
1407.0±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:5957-80-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The phenolic compounds of methanolic extracts of Salvia pomifera and Salvia fruticosa were identified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Carnosic acid and its metabolite carnosol were the most abundant terpene phenolic compounds of S. fruticosa, while they were completely absent in S. pomifera. The main terpene phenolic constituent of S. pomifera was 12-O-methylcarnosic acid and its mass/mass fragmentation pathway was explained. The detailed mechanism of carnosic acid oxidation to carnosol was suggested. The effects of Salvia extracts and/or carnosic acid, the main diterpene phenolic component of S. fruticosa, on the proliferation and cell cycle of two melanoma cell lines (A375, Mel JuSo) and human fibroblast cell line (HFF) were investigated by MTT assay, PI-exclusion assay and flow cytometry cell cycle analysis. Extract of S. fruticosa more efficiently than S. pomifera extract reduced the proliferation of the human melanoma cells. Carnosic acid showed the most significant effect. The first evidence that carnosic acid affects microtubule dynamics and arrests the cell cycle in the G2/M phase was provided. Collectively, our results demonstrate that these two Salvia species are plants of medicinal interest with perspective for further investigation. Carnosic acid could be the compound responsible for the biological activities of S. fruticosa extracts.
12-O-methylcarnosic acid; LC-MS; Salvia fruticosa; Salvia pomifera; cancer; carnosic acid; cell cycle; cytotoxicity; melanoma; microtubules
Characterization of Phenolic Compounds and Antiproliferative Effects of Salvia pomifera and Salvia fruticosa Extracts.
Koutsoulas A1, carnecka M2, Slanina J2, Toth J3, Slaninova I4.
2019 Aug 12
Carnosol, a phenolic diterpene, is one of the main constituents of Rosmarinus. It is known to possess a range of bioactivities, including antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Nevertheless, the antiaging effects of carnosol have received little attention. This study first indicated that carnosol increased the healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). First, compared with the control condition, carnosol treatment effectively decreased ROS accumulation under normal or oxidative stress condition, significantly increased several key antioxidant enzyme activities, and significantly decreased MDA content. Second, carnosol effectively prolonged lifespan under normal and stress conditions and slowed aging-related declines, including mobility, age pigmentation, and neurodegenerative disease, but had no effect on fertility and fat deposition. Finally, carnosol-mediated longevity required the upregulated expression of sod-3, sod-5, hsf-1, hsp-16.1, and hsp-16.2 and was dependent on the hsf-1 gene. Increased DAF-16 translocation was observed, but daf-16 was independent of the effects on lifespan induced by carnosol. These results suggested that carnosol might serve as a good source of natural antioxidants, and in particular, carnosol could be explored as a potential dietary supplement to slow aging.
Carnosol Improved Lifespan and Healthspan by Promoting Antioxidant Capacity in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Lin C1, Zhang X1, Su Z2, Xiao J1, Lv M1, Cao Y1, Chen Y1.
2019 Jun 24
Interactive relationships among metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation at skeletal muscle level play a key role in the pathogenesis of disorders related to oxidative stress. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress result in cellular energy deficiency, inflammation and cell death inducing a vicious cycle that promotes muscle wasting. The histidine-containing dipeptides, carnosine and anserine, are carbonyl scavengers whose cytoprotective contributions extend beyond the antioxidant defence, but the physiological meaning of these capacities is actually limited. In the present study, we compared and investigated the potential protective effects of three different histidine-containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine and carnosinol, a carnosine-mimetic new compound, against oxidative stress induction in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells. The hydrogen peroxide induced-oxidative stress significantly altered cell morphology, induced apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, decreased mitochondrial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)/sirtuin3 pathway and the antioxidant system. Notably, all three investigated dipeptides in the present study, with a different extent and in a concentration-dependent manner, reduced myotube oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. The present study underlined that carnosinol, maintaining the safety condition of carnosine and anserine, was the more efficient studied dipeptide in the preservation of mitochondrial environment mediated by PGC-1α and sirtuin3 expression and thereby in the reduction of oxidative stress-related alterations in this in vitro skeletal muscle model. Furthermore, we observed that carnosinol’s antioxidant effects are not blocked inhibiting sirtuin3, but are maintained with almost the same extend, indicating its multiple capacities of reactive carbonyl species-scavenging and of mitochondrial modulation through PGC-1α. In conclusion, carnosinol retained and surpassed the efficacy of the well-known investigated histidine-containing dipeptides improving oxidative stress, inflammation and also cell metabolism and so becoming a greatly promising therapeutic carnosine derivate.
A carnosine analog with therapeutic potentials in the treatment of disorders related to oxidative stress.
Rezzani R1,2, Favero G1, Ferroni M3,4, Lonati C1, Moghadasian MH5.
2019 Apr 9
Carnosol is a potent Ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK2) inhibitor that could be useful for treating gastric cancer, with an IC50 of ~5.5 μM.