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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:16408-75-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
β4 integrin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are often associated with a poor prognosis in cancer patients, and their signaling events have recently been linked to malignant outcomes. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, physical and functional interactions between β4 integrin and FAK that influence breast cancer malignancy. An amino-terminal linker within FAK is essential for its binding with the cytodomain of β4 integrin. Moreover, EGFR/Src-signaling triggers the tyrosine phosphorylation of β4 integrin, which, in turn, recruits FAK to β4 integrin and leads to FAK activation and signaling. Upon disruption of the β4 integrin/FAK complex, tumorigenesis and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer were markedly reduced. Importantly, the concomitant overexpression of β4 integrin and FAK significantly correlates with malignant potential in patients with triple-negative breast cancer. This study describes a pro-metastatic EGFR/Src-dependent β4 integrin/FAK complex that is involved in breast cancer malignancy and is a novel therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer.
An EGFR/Src-dependent β4 integrin/FAK complex contributes to malignancy of breast cancer
Yu-Ling Tai,1 Pei-Yu Chu,1 I-Rue Lai,2,3 Ming-Yang Wang,3 Hui-Yuan Tseng,1,* Jun-Lin Guan,4 Jun-Yang Liou,5 and Tang-Long Shena,1,6
Detection of protein biomarkers is an important tool for medical diagnostics, typically exploiting concentration of particular biomarkers or biomarker release from tissues. We sought to establish whether proteins not normally released by living cells can be extracted without harming cells, with a view to extending this into biomarker harvest for medical diagnosis and other applications. Styrene maleic acid (SMA) is a polymer that extracts nanodiscs of biological membranes (containing membrane proteins) from cells. Hitherto it has been used to harvest SMA-lipid-membrane protein particles (SMALP) for biochemical study, by destroying the living cellular specimen. In this study, we applied SMA at low concentration to human primary cardiovascular cells and rat vascular tissue, to ‘biopsy’ cell proteins while avoiding significant reductions in cell viability. SMA at 6.25 parts per million harvested proteins from cells and tissues without causing significant release of cytosolic dye (calcein) or reduction in cell viability at 24 and 72 hours post-SMA (MTT assay). A wide range of proteins were recovered (20-200 kDa) and a number identified by mass spectrometry: this confirmed protein recovery from plasma membrane, intracellular membranes and cell cytosol without associated cell death. These data demonstrate the feasibility of non-lethally sampling proteins from cells, greatly extending our sampling capability, which could yield new physiological and/or pathological biomarkers.
Subject terms: Membrane proteins, Proteomic analysis, Diagnostic markers
Styrene maleic acid recovers proteins from mammalian cells and tissues while avoiding significant cell death
Andrew J. Smith,corresponding author1,2 Kathleen E. Wright,1 Stephen P. Muench,1,3 Sophie Schumann,4 Adrian Whitehouse,3,4 Karen E. Porter,5 and John Colyer1
Severe equine asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lower airways similar to adult-onset asthma in humans. Exacerbations are characterized by bronchial and bronchiolar neutrophilic inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and airway constriction. In this study we analyzed the gene expression response of the bronchial epithelium within groups of asthmatic and non-asthmatic animals following exposure to a dusty hay challenge. After challenge we identified 2341 and 120 differentially expressed genes in asthmatic and non-asthmatic horses, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis of changes in gene expression after challenge identified 587 and 171 significantly enriched gene sets in asthmatic and non-asthmatic horses, respectively. Gene sets in asthmatic animals pertained, but were not limited, to cell cycle, neutrophil migration and chemotaxis, wound healing, hemostasis, coagulation, regulation of body fluid levels, and the hedgehog pathway. Furthermore, transcription factor target enrichment analysis in the asthmatic group showed that transcription factor motifs with the highest enrichment scores for up-regulated genes belonged to the E2F transcription factor family. It is postulated that engagement of hedgehog and E2F pathways in asthmatic horses promotes dysregulated cell proliferation and abnormal epithelial repair. These fundamental lesions may prevent re-establishment of homeostasis and perpetuate inflammation.
Gene set enrichment analysis of the bronchial epithelium implicates contribution of cell cycle and tissue repair processes in equine asthma
Laurence Tessier, Olivier Côte, Mary Ellen Clark, Laurent Viel, Andres Diaz-Mendez, Simon Anders, Dorothee Bienzle