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Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies and Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) generate millions of reads and hundreds of datasets, and there is an urgent need for a better way to accurately interpret and distill such large amounts of data. Extensive pathway and network analysis allow for the discovery of highly significant pathways from a set of disease vs. healthy samples in the NGS and GWAS. Knowledge of activation of these processes will lead to elucidation of the complex biological pathways affected by drug treatment, to patient stratification studies of new and existing drug treatments, and to understanding the underlying anti-cancer drug effects. There are approximately 141 biological human pathway resources as of Jan 2012 according to the Pathguide database. However, most currently available resources do not contain disease, drug or organ specificity information such as disease-pathway, drug-pathway, and organ-pathway associations. Systematically integrating pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity together becomes increasingly crucial for understanding the interrelationships between signaling, metabolic and regulatory pathway, drug action, disease susceptibility, and organ specificity from high-throughput omics data (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics).
We designed the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis (IPAD, http://bioinfo.hsc.unt.edu/ipad), defining inter-association between pathway, disease, drug and organ specificity, based on six criteria: 1) comprehensive pathway coverage; 2) gene/protein to pathway/disease/drug/organ association; 3) inter-association between pathway, disease, drug, and organ; 4) multiple and quantitative measurement of enrichment and inter-association; 5) assessment of enrichment and inter-association analysis with the context of the existing biological knowledge and a “gold standard” constructed from reputable and reliable sources; and 6) cross-linking of multiple available data sources.
IPAD is a comprehensive database covering about 22,498 genes, 25,469 proteins, 1956 pathways, 6704 diseases, 5615 drugs, and 52 organs integrated from databases including the BioCarta, KEGG, NCI-Nature curated, Reactome, CTD, PharmGKB, DrugBank, PharmGKB, and HOMER. The database has a web-based user interface that allows users to perform enrichment analysis from genes/proteins/molecules and inter-association analysis from a pathway, disease, drug, and organ.
Moreover, the quality of the database was validated with the context of the existing biological knowledge and a “gold standard” constructed from reputable and reliable sources. Two case studies were also presented to demonstrate: 1) self-validation of enrichment analysis and inter-association analysis on brain-specific markers, and 2) identification of previously undiscovered components by the enrichment analysis from a prostate cancer study.
IPAD is a new resource for analyzing, identifying, and validating pathway, disease, drug, organ specificity and their inter-associations. The statistical method we developed for enrichment and similarity measurement and the two criteria we described for setting the threshold parameters can be extended to other enrichment applications. Enriched pathways, diseases, drugs, organs and their inter-associations can be searched, displayed, and downloaded from our online user interface. The current IPAD database can help users address a wide range of biological pathway related, disease susceptibility related, drug target related and organ specificity related questions in human disease studies.
IPAD: the Integrated Pathway Analysis Database for Systematic Enrichment Analysis
Fan Zhang1,2 and Renee Drabiercorresponding author1
3p deletion syndrome is a rare contiguous-gene disorder involving the loss of the telomeric portion of the short arm of chromosome 3 and characterized by developmental delay, growth retardation, and dysmorphic features. All reported cases have involved, at a minimum, the deletion of chromosome 3 telomeric to the band 3p25.3. Despite the presence of several genes in this region that are involved in neural development, a causative relationship between a particular transcript and the observed clinical manifestations has remained elusive. We have identified a child with characteristic physical features of 3p deletion syndrome and both verbal and nonverbal developmental delay who carries a de novo balanced translocation involving chromosomes 3 and 10. Fine mapping of this rearrangement demonstrates that the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 3 falls within the recently identified minimal candidate region for 3p deletion syndrome and disrupts the Contactin 4 (CNTN4) mRNA transcript at 3p26.2-3p26.3. This transcript (also known as BIG-2) is a member of the immunoglobulin super family of neuronal cell adhesion molecules involved in axon growth, guidance, and fasciculation in the central nervous system (CNS). Our results demonstrate the association of CNTN4 disruption with the 3p deletion syndrome phenotype and strongly suggest a causal relationship. These findings point to an important role for CNTN4 in normal and abnormal CNS development.
Disruption of Contactin 4 (CNTN4) Results in Developmental Delay and Other Features of 3p Deletion Syndrome
Thomas Fernandez,1,* Thomas Morgan,2,* Nicole Davis,1 Ami Klin,1 Ashley Morris,1 Anita Farhi,2,3,4 Richard P. Lifton,2,3,4 and Matthew W. State1,2,3
Weekly Reports for May 25, 1900
1900 May 25;