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Suoyang originates from a psammophyte named Cynomorium songaricum Rupr and has been known as a phenolic-antioxidant-enriched traditional Chinese herbal medicine. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of phenolic antioxidants in Suoyang towards •OH-mediated MSCs and then further discusses the chemical mechanisms.
The lyophilized aqueous extract of Suoyang (LAS) was prepared and characterized using HPLC. Then, two phenolic antioxidant references, epicatechin and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, along with LAS, were investigated for their effects on the viability of •OH-treated MSCs using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl (MTT) assay. The comparison and mechanistic chemistry of epicatechin and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside were further explored using various antioxidant assays, including PTIO•-scavenging, FRAP (ferric ion reducing antioxidant power), ABTS+•-scavenging, and DPPH•-scavenging. Their Fe2+-binding capacities were also compared using ultraviolet (UV) spectra.
The HPLC analysis indicated that there are 8 phenolic antioxidants in LAS, including epicatechin, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechin, isoquercitrin, phlorizin, and naringenin. The MTT assay revealed that epicatechin could more effectively increase the survival of •OH-treated MSCs than luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside. Similarly, epicatechin exhibited higher antioxidant abilities than luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside in the DPPH•-scavenging, ABTS+•-scavenging, FRAP, and PTIO•-scavenging assays. In the Fe2+-binding assay, luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside gave a stronger UV peak at 600 nm, with ε = 2.62 × 106 M−1 cm−1, while epicatechin produced two peaks at 450 nm (ε = 8.47 × 105 M−1 cm−1) and 750 nm (ε = 9.68 × 105 M−1 cm−1).
As two reference antioxidants in Suoyang, epicatechin and luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside can enhance the viability of •OH-damaged MSCs. Such a beneficial effect may be from their antioxidant effects, including direct-antioxidant and indirect-antioxidant (i.e., Fe2+-binding) processes. In the direct-antioxidant process, proton (H+), one electron (e), or even hydrogen-atom (•H) transfer may occur to fulfill radical-scavenging (especially •OH-scavenging); in this aspect, epicatechin is superior to luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside due to the presence of more phenolic -OHs. The additional -OHs can also be responsible for the better cytoprotective effect. In terms of indirect-antioxidant potential, however, epicatechin is inferior to luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside due to the absence of a hydroxyl-keto moiety. These findings will provide new information about medicinal psammophytes for MSC transplantation.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13065-017-0313-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Phenolic antioxidants, Suoyang, Epicatechin, Luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, Mesenchymal stem cells
Two phenolic antioxidants in Suoyang enhance viability of •OH-damaged mesenchymal stem cells: comparison and mechanistic chemistry
Yulu Xie,#1,2 Xican Li,corresponding author#1,2 Jieying Xu,1 Qian Jiang,1,2 Hong Xie,1,2 Jianfeng He,1,2 and Dongfeng Chencorresponding author1,3,4
Significance: All cells must maintain a balance between oxidants and reductants, while allowing for fluctuations in redox states triggered by signaling, altered metabolic flow, or extracellular stimuli. Furthermore, they must be able to rapidly sense and react to various challenges that would disrupt the redox homeostasis. Recent Advances: Many studies have identified Keap1 as a key sensor for oxidative or electrophilic stress, with modification of Keap1 by oxidation or electrophiles triggering Nrf2-mediated transcriptional induction of enzymes supporting reductive and detoxification pathways. However, additional mechanisms for Nrf2 regulation are likely to exist upstream of, or in parallel with, Keap1. Critical Issues: Here, we propose that the mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a potent regulator of Nrf2. A high chemical reactivity of TrxR1 and its vital role for the thioredoxin (Trx) system distinguishes TrxR1 as a prime target for electrophilic challenges. Chemical modification of the selenocysteine (Sec) in TrxR1 by electrophiles leads to rapid inhibition of thioredoxin disulfide reductase activity, often combined with induction of NADPH oxidase activity of the derivatized enzyme, thereby affecting many downstream redox pathways. The notion of TrxR1 as a regulator of Nrf2 is supported by many publications on effects in human cells of selenium deficiency, oxidative stress or electrophile exposure, as well as the phenotypes of genetic mouse models. Future Directions: Investigation of the role of TrxR1 as a regulator of Nrf2 activation will facilitate further studies of redox control in diverse cells and tissues of mammals, and possibly also in animals of other classes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 823-853.
TrxR1 as a Potent Regulator of the Nrf2-Keap1 Response System
Marcus Cebula,1 Edward E. Schmidt,2 and Elias S.J. Arnercorresponding author1
2015 Oct 1;