8bH-Cedran-8-ol/Cedarwood oil alcohols/(8α)-Cedran-8-ol/Cedar camphor/(1S,2R,5S,7R,8R)-2,6,6,8-Tetramethyltricyclo[184.108.40.206]undecan-8-ol/8betaH-Cedran-8-ol/EUDESMOL/1H-3a,7-Methanoazulen-6-ol, octahydro-3,6,8,8-tetramethyl-, (3R,3aS,6R,7R,8aS)-/(1S,2R,5S,7R,8R)-2,6,6,8-Tetramethyltricyclo[220.127.116.11]undecan-8-ol/Cypress camphor/8βH-cedran-8-ol/[3R-(3a,3ab,6a,7b,8aa)]-Octahydro-3,6,8,8-tetramethyl-1H-3a,7-methanoazulen-6-ol/Cedrol
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Larviciding is an effective supplementary tool for malaria vector control, but the identification and accessibility of aquatic habitats impedes application. Dissemination of the insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen (PPF), by gravid Anopheles might constitute a novel application strategy. This study aimed to explore the feasibility of using an attractive bait-station to contaminate gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto with PPF and subsequently transfer PPF to larval habitats.
A bait-station was developed comprising of an artificial pond containing water treated with 20 ppm cedrol, an oviposition attractant, and a netting-cover treated with PPF. Three identical semi-field cages were used to assess the potential of gravid Anopheles to transfer PPF from the bait-station to ponds. Gravid females were released in two semi-field cages, one with PPF on its bait-station (test) and one without PPF (control). No mosquitoes were released in the third cage with a PPF-treated station (control). Transfer of PPF to open ponds was assessed by monitoring emergence of late instar insectary-reared larvae introduced into the ponds. The amount of PPF carried by a mosquito and transferred to water was quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.
In the controls, 86% (95% CI 81-89%) of larvae introduced into open ponds developed into adults, indicating that wind did not distribute PPF in absence of mosquitoes. Emergence inhibition was observed in the test cage but was dependent on the distance between pond and bait-station. Only 25% (95% CI 22-29%) of larvae emerged as adults from ponds 4 m from the bait-station, but 92% (95% CI 89-94%) emerged from ponds 10 m away. Each mosquito was contaminated on average with 112 μg (95% CI 93-123 μg) PPF resulting in the transfer of 230 ng/L (95% CI 180-290 ng/L) PPF to 100 ml volumes of water.
The bait-stations successfully attracted gravid females which were subsequently dusted with effective levels of PPF. However, in this study design, attraction and dissemination was limited to short distances. To make this approach feasible for malaria vector control, stronger attractants that lure gravid females from longer distances, in landscapes with many water bodies, and better PPF delivery systems are needed.
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto; Oviposition; Pyriproxyfen; Vector control
Testing a pyriproxyfen auto-dissemination station attractive to gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto for the development of a novel attract-release -and-kill strategy for malaria vector control.
Mbare O1,2, Lindsay SW3, Fillinger U4.
2019 Sep 11;
Cedrol has been reported to be effective in reducing anxiety of male mice. The limited application of females in animal models of anxiety makes it difficult to systematically investigate new drug substitutes with potential anxiolytic activity. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral response of female ICR mice to cedrol after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration using the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the light-dark box (LDB) test, followed by determination of neurochemical changes in brain. The data suggested that cedrol at dose of 1200-1600 mg·kg-1 exhibited anxiolytic activity on the female mice, as reflected by greater percentage of entries into the open arms and time spent in the open arms in the EPM, and greater transitions between chambers and percentage of time spent in the light chamber in the LDB. Cedrol increased the level of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), decreased the level of dopamine (DA), reduced the ratio of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT and increased the ratio of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC)/DA, compared with the control group, indicative of an anxiolytic-like effect on female mice via the 5-HTnergic or DAnergic pathways.
5-hydroxytryptamine; anxiolytic effect; cedrol; elevated plus maze; light-dark box
Anxiolytic Effect of Cedrol on Behavior and Brain Neurotransmitter Levels of Female Mice.
Zhang K1, Yao L1.
2019 Sep 1
Cedrol is an extremely versatile sesquiterpene alcohol that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States as a flavoring agent or adjuvant and has been commonly used as a flavoring ingredient in cosmetics, foods and medicine. Furthermore, cedrol possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including sedative, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Commercial production of cedrol relies on fractional distillation of cedar wood oils, followed by recrystallization, and little has been reported about its biosynthesis and aspects of synthetic biology. Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a cedrol synthase gene (Lc-CedS) from the transcriptome of the glandular trichomes of a woody Lamiaceae plant Leucosceptrum canum. The recombinant Lc-CedS protein catalyzed the in vitro conversion of farnesyl diphosphate into the single product cedrol, suggesting that Lc-CedS is a high-fidelity terpene synthase. Co-expression of Lc-CedS, a farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene and seven genes of the mevalonate (MVA) pathway responsible for converting acetyl-CoA into farnesyl diphosphate in Escherichia coli afforded 363 μg/L cedrol as the sole product under shaking flask conditions. Transient expression of Lc-CedS in Nicotiana benthamiana also resulted in a single product cedrol with a production level of 3.6 μg/g fresh weight. The sole production of cedrol by introducing of Lc-CedS in engineered E. coli and N. benthamiana suggests now alternative production systems using synthetic biology approaches that would better address sufficient supply of cedrol.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cedrol; Cedrol synthase; Heterologous production; Lamiaceae; Leucosceptrum canum; Sesquiterpene cylase; Synthetic biology
Characterization of a sesquiterpene cyclase from the glandular trichomes of Leucosceptrum canum for sole production of cedrol in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana benthamiana.
Luo F1, Ling Y2, Li DS2, Tang T2, Liu YC1, Liu Y3, Li SH4.