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Transverse deflection structures are useful devices for characterizing the longitudinal properties of bunches in electron accelerators. With efforts to produce ever-shorter bunches for applications such as external injection into novel accelerator structures, e.g. plasma cells or dielectric structures, the applicability of deflection structures to measuring ultrashort bunches has been considered. In this paper, charge-density and bunch-length measurements of femtosecond and subfemtosecond bunches at the ARES linac at the SINBAD facility at DESY are studied with simulations and the limitations discussed in detail. The novel polarizable X-band transverse deflection structure (PolariX-TDS) will allow the streaking of bunches at all transverse angles, making a 3D charge-density reconstruction of bunches possible, in addition to the standard 1D charge-density reconstruction and bunch-length measurements. These various measurements of the charge-density distributions of bunches have been simulated, and it is shown that useful information about ultrashort bunches down to subfemtosecond lengths may be obtained using the setup planned for the ARES linac.
Subject terms: Applied physics, Physics, Techniques and instrumentation
Simulation studies for characterizing ultrashort bunches using novel polarizable X-band transverse deflection structures
Daniel Marx,corresponding author1,2 Ralph W. Assmann,1 Paolo Craievich,3 Klaus Floettmann,1 Alexej Grudiev,4 and Barbara Marchetti1
The goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the performance of different diagnostic tests for Legionnaires’ disease in a clinical setting where Legionella pneumophila PCR had been introduced. Electronic medical records at the Cleveland Clinic were searched for Legionella urinary antigen (UAG), culture, and PCR tests ordered from March 2010 through December 2013. For cases where two or more test methods were performed and at least one was positive, the medical record was reviewed for relevant clinical and epidemiologic factors. Excluding repeat testing on a given patient, 19,912 tests were ordered (12,569 UAG, 3,747 cultures, and 3,596 PCR) with 378 positive results. The positivity rate for each method was 0.4% for culture, 0.8% for PCR, and 2.7% for UAG. For 37 patients, at least two test methods were performed with at least one positive result: 10 (27%) cases were positive by all three methods, 16 (43%) were positive by two methods, and 11 (30%) were positive by one method only. For the 32 patients with medical records available, clinical presentation was consistent with proven or probable Legionella infection in 84% of the cases. For those cases, the sensitivities of culture, PCR, and UAG were 50%, 92%, and 96%, respectively. The specificities were 100% for culture and 99.9% for PCR and UAG.
Utility of PCR, Culture, and Antigen Detection Methods for Diagnosis of Legionellosis
Derrick J. Chen, Gary W. Procop, Sherilynn Vogel, Belinda Yen-Lieberman, and Sandra S. Richtercorresponding author A. B. Onderdonk, Editor
The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a) dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b) applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal) and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium) as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences.
2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier system, nutrient profiling, nutritional quality, adults, Canadians
Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System
Mahsa Jessri,1 Stephanie K. Nishi,2,3 and Mary R. L’Abbe3,*