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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:57126-62-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Purpose: Recently, a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) has shown great improvement in the enhancement of drug bioavailability. The selection of appropriate compositions in the SNEDDS formulation is the fundamental step towards developing a successful formulation. This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of fractional factorial design (FFD) in the selection and screening of a SNEDDS composition. Furthermore, the most efficient FFD approach would be applied to the selection of SNEDDS components.
Methods: The types of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant, and their concentrations were selected as factors. 26 full factorial design (FD) (64 runs), 26-1 FFD (32 runs), 26-2 FFD (16 runs), and 26-3 FFD (8 runs) were compared to the main effect contributions of each design. Ca-pitavastatin (Ca-PVT) was used as a drug model. Screening parameters, such as transmittance, emulsification time, and drug load, were selected as responses followed by particle size along with zeta potential for optimized formulation.
Results: The results indicated that the patterns of 26 full FD and 26-1 for both main effects and interactions were similar. 26-3 FFD lacked adequate precision when used for screening owing to the limitation of design points. In addition, capryol, Tween 80, and transcutol P were selected to be developed in a SNEDDS formulation with a particle size of 69.7± 5.3 nm along with a zeta potential of 33.4± 2.1 mV.
Conclusion: Herein, 26-2 FFD was chosen as the most efficient and adequate design for the selection and screening of SNEDDS composition. The optimized formulation fulfilled the requirement of a quality target profile of a nanoemulsion.
Fractional factorial design, SNEDDS, Screening, Optimization, Statistical approach
Assessment of Fractional Factorial Design for the Selection and Screening of Appropriate Components of a Self-nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System Formulation
Ilham Kuncahyo, 1 , 2 Syaiful Choiri, 3 ,* Achmad Fudholi, 4 Ronny Martien, 4 and Abdul Rohman 5 ,*
Low physical stability is the limitation of the widespread use of amorphous drugs. The co-amorphous drug system is a new and emerging method for preparing a stable amorphous form. Co-amorphous is a single-phase amorphous multicomponent system consisting of two or more small molecules that are a combination of drugs or drugs and excipients. The co-amorphous system that uses benzoic acid (BA) as an excipient was studied to improve the physical stability, dissolution, and solubility of desloratadine (DES). In this study, the co-amorphous formation of DES and BA (DES-BA) was prepared by melt-quenching method and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and polarized light microscopy (PLM). Dissolution, solubility, and physical stability profiles of DES-BA were determined. The DES crystals were converted into DES-BA co-amorphous form to reveal the molecular interactions between DES and BA. Solid-state analysis proved that the co-amorphous DES-BA system (1:1) is amorphous and homogeneous. The DSC experiment showed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of tested DES-BA co-amorphous had a higher single Tg compared to the amorphous DES. FTIR revealed strong interactions, especially salt formation. The dissolution rate and solubility of co-amorphous DES-BA (1:1) obtained were larger than the DES in crystalline form. The PXRD technique was used to assess physical stability for three months at 40 °C with 75% RH. The DES-BA co-amorphous system demonstrated better physical stability than a single form of amorphous DES. Co-amorphous DES-BA has demonstrated the potential for improving solid-state stability, as the formation of DES-BA co-amorphous salt increased solubility and dissolution when compared to pure crystalline DES. This study also demonstrated the possibility for developing a DES-BA co-amorphous system toward oral formulations to improve DES solubility and bioavailability.
desloratadine, benzoic acid, co-amorphous, solubility, stability, melt-quenching
A Novel Desloratadine-Benzoic Acid Co-Amorphous Solid: Preparation, Characterization, and Stability Evaluation
Ahmad Ainurofiq,1,2,* Rachmat Mauludin,1 Diky Mudhakir,1 and Sundani Nurono Soewandhi1,*
In this paper, we present the characteristics and performance of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The membranes were prepared via a phase-inversion method (non-solvent-induced phase separation (NIPS)). As separators for lithium battery systems, additive modified montmorillonite (MMT) nano-clay served as a filler and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was used as a pore-forming agent. The membranes modified with an additive (8 wt % nano-clay and 7 wt % PVP) showed an increased porosity (87%) and an uptake of a large amount of electrolyte (801.69%), which generated a high level of ionic conductivity (5.61 mS cm−1) at room temperature. A graphite/PEMs/LiFePO4 coin cell CR2032 showed excellent stability in cycling performance (average discharge capacity 127 mA h g−1). Based on these results, PEMs are promising materials to be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in lithium-ion batteries.
polymer electrolyte membranes, nano-clay, poly(vinylpyrrolidone), PVDF membranes
Ionic Conductivity and Cycling Stability Improvement of PVDF/Nano-Clay Using PVP as Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for LiFePO4 Batteries
Endah R. Dyartanti,1,2 Agus Purwanto,2 I. Nyoman Widiasa,1,3 and Heru Susanto1,3,*