Tannin derived from divi-divi (fruit of Caesalpinia coriaria) and myrobalans (fruit of Terminalia chebula). Present in Geranium spp.
Chebulagic acid/[(4R,5S,7R,25S,26R,29S,30S,31S)-13,14,15,18,19,20,31,35,36-Nonahydroxy-2,10,23,28,32-pentaoxo-5-[(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-3,6,9,24,27,33-hexaoxaheptacyclo[22.214.171.124.0.0.0 .0]octatriaconta-1(38),11,13,15,17,19,21,34,36-nonaen-29-yl]acetic acid/10,24-(Epoxymethano)-11H-4,9,12,23,25-pentaoxadibenzo[5',6':7',8']cyclododeca[1',2':7,8]cycloundeca[1,2,3-de]naphthalene-7-acetic acid, 5,6,6a,7,8,9a,10,13,22,23a,24,26-dodecahydro-2,3,6,15,16,17,18,19,20-nonahydroxy-5,8,13,22,26-pentaoxo-27-[(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoyl)oxy]-, (6S,6aS,7S,9aR,10R,23aS,24R,27S)-/CHEBULAGIC ACID(RG)
Chebulagic acid is a COX-LOX dual inhibitor isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz, on angiogenesis.target: COX-LOX In vitro: Chebulagic acid can enhance the autophagy. Chebulagic acid exert anti-inflammatory and anti-infective effects.   Chebulagic acid also show a protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) - induce cytotoxicity which mimics the pathological symptom of Parkinson's disease. Chebulagic acid inhibit the LPS-induced upregulation of TNF-α and IL-1β in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, LPS-activated MAPK signaling is inhibited by CA treatment in the EA.hy926 cells. 
Methanol; Ethanol; Acetone
1610.6±65.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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The imbalance between the generation of free radicals and natural cellular antioxidant defenses, known as oxidative stress, can cause oxidation of biomolecules and further contribute to aging-associated diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant capacities of Thai traditional tonifying preparation, Jatu-Phala-Tiga (JPT) and its herbal ingredients consisting of Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellirica and further assess its effect on longevity.
Antioxidant activities of various extracts obtained from JPT and its herbal components were carried out using well-established methods including metal chelating, free radical scavenging, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. Qualitative analysis of the chemical composition from JPT water extract was done by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. The effect of JPT water extract on the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans were additionally described.
Among the extracts, JPT water extract exerted remarkable antioxidant activities as compared to the extracts from other solvents and individual constituting plant extract. JPT water extract was found to possess the highest metal chelating activity, with an IC50 value of 1.75 ± 0.05 mg/mL. Moreover, it exhibited remarkable scavenging activities towards DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion radicals, with IC50 values of 0.31 ± 0.02, 0.308 ± 0.004, and 0.055 ± 0.002 mg/mL, respectively. The ORAC and FRAP values of JPT water extract were 40.338 ± 2.273 μM of Trolox/μg of extract and 23.07 ± 1.84 mM FeSO4/mg sample, respectively. Several well-known antioxidant-related compounds including amaronols, quinic acid, gallic acid, fertaric acid, kurigalin, amlaic acid, isoterchebin, chebulagic acid, ginkgolide C, chebulinic acid, ellagic acid, and rutin were found in this extract. Treatment with JPT water extract at 1 and 5 mg/mL increased C. elegans lifespan under normal growth condition (7.26 ± 0.65 vs. 10.4 0± 0.75 (p < 0.01) and 10.00 ± 0.73 (p < 0.01) days, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that JPT and its herbal ingredients exhibited strong antioxidant activities, in particular the water extract of the polyherbal tonic. These findings rationalize further investigation in JPT infusion as a promising agent for anti-aging and oxidative stress prevention.
Antioxidants; Caenorhabditis elegans; Herbal tonic; Polyherbal formula; Tonifying agents
Traditional tonifying polyherbal infusion, Jatu-Phala-Tiga, exerts antioxidant activities and extends lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans.
Wetchakul P1, Goon JA2, Adekoya AE1, Olatunji OJ1, Ruangchuay S1, Jaisamut P1, Issuriya A3, Kunworarath N1, Limsuwan S1,4, Chusri S5,6.
2019 Aug 13;
A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of chebulinic acid and chebulagic acid in rat plasma and tissues and well used in the pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies after intraperitoneal injection administration. Samples were processed with methanol by protein precipitation, and chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of methanol and water containing 0.1% formic acid (60:40, v/v). Quantification was performed by selected reaction monitoring with m/z 977.1 → 806.8 for chebulagic acid, m/z 979.0 → 808.7 for chebulinic acid and m/z 851.2 → 704.9 for the internal standard. Good linearity was observed over their respective concentration range. The pharmacokinetic study showed that both compounds reached their peak concentration values (605.8 ± 35.6 ng/mL for chebulinic acid and 1327.1 ± 118.6 ng/mL for chebulagic acid) at the same time of 0.9 h following intraperitoneal injection administration. The two compounds could be detected in blood-abundant tissues. The kidney had the highest concentrations (462.6 ± 138.5 ng/g for chebulinic acid and 1651.7 ± 167.7 ng/g for chebulagic acid) at 1 h post-dose, followed by the heart, liver, spleen and lung.
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
chebulagic acid; chebulinic acid; liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; pharmacokinetic study; tissue distribution
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for preclinical pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of hydrolyzable tannins chebulinic acid and chebulagic acid in rats.
Lu Y1, Yan H2, Teng S3, Yang X3.
Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is an etiologic agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) that affects young children, and although typically self-limited, severe complications, and fatal cases have been reported. Due to the lack of specific medication and vaccines against CVA16, there is currently a need to develop effective antivirals to better control CVA16 infections in epidemic areas. In this study, we identified the tannins chebulagic acid (CHLA) and punicalagin (PUG) as small molecules that can efficiently disrupt the CVA16 infection of human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Both compounds significantly reduced CVA16 infectivity at micromolar concentrations without apparent cytotoxicity. A mechanistic analysis revealed that the tannins particularly targeted the CVA16 entry phase by inactivating cell-free viral particles and inhibiting viral binding. Further examination by molecular docking analysis pinpointed the targets of the tannins in the fivefold axis canyon region of the CVA16 capsid near the pocket entrance that functions in cell surface receptor binding. We suggest that CHLA and PUG are efficient antagonists of CVA16 entry and could be of value as antiviral candidates or as starting points for developing molecules to treat CVA16 infections.
Lin CJ1, Liu CH2,3, Wang JY4, Lin CC1,5, Li YF5, Richardson CD3,6, Lin LT7,8.
2018 Sep 26