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Associations of hormone-receptor positive breast cancer with excess adiposity are reasonably well characterized; however, uncertainty remains regarding the association of body mass index (BMI) with hormone-receptor negative malignancies, and possible interactions by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) use.
Within the European EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationship of BMI, waist and hip circumferences with risk of estrogen-receptor (ER) negative and progesterone-receptor (PR) negative (n = 1,021) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,586) breast tumors within five-year age bands. Among postmenopausal women, the joint effects of BMI and HRT use were analyzed.
For risk of ER-PR- tumors, there was no association of BMI across the age bands. However, when analyses were restricted to postmenopausal HRT never users, a positive risk association with BMI (third versus first tertile HR = 1.47 (1.01 to 2.15)) was observed. BMI was inversely associated with ER+PR+ tumors among women aged ≤49 years (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.79 (95%CI 0.68 to 0.91)), and positively associated with risk among women ≥65 years (HR = 1.25 (1.16 to 1.34)). Adjusting for BMI, waist and hip circumferences showed no further associations with risks of breast cancer subtypes. Current use of HRT was significantly associated with an increased risk of receptor-negative (HRT current use compared to HRT never use HR: 1.30 (1.05 to 1.62)) and positive tumors (HR: 1.74 (1.56 to 1.95)), although this risk increase was weaker for ER-PR- disease (Phet = 0.035). The association of HRT was significantly stronger in the leaner women (BMI ≤22.5 kg/m2) than for more overweight women (BMI ≥25.9 kg/m2) for, both, ER-PR- (HR: 1.74 (1.15 to 2.63)) and ER+PR+ (HR: 2.33 (1.84 to 2.92)) breast cancer and was not restricted to any particular HRT regime.
An elevated BMI may be positively associated with risk of ER-PR- tumors among postmenopausal women who never used HRT. Furthermore, postmenopausal HRT users were at an increased risk of ER-PR- as well as ER+PR+ tumors, especially among leaner women. For hormone-receptor positive tumors, but not for hormone-receptor negative tumors, our study confirms an inverse association of risk with BMI among young women of premenopausal age. Our data provide evidence for a possible role of sex hormones in the etiology of hormone-receptor negative tumors.
Adiposity, hormone replacement therapy use and breast cancer risk by age and hormone receptor status: a large prospective cohort study
Rebecca Ritte,1 Annekatrin Lukanova,1 Franco Berrino,2 Laure Dossus,1 Anne Tjønneland,3 Anja Olsen,3 Thure Filskov Overvad,4 Kim Overvad,5 Francoise Clavel-Chapelon,6,7 Agnes Fournier,6,7 Guy Fagherazzi,6,7 Sabine Rohrmann,1,8 Birgit Teucher,1 Heiner Boeing,9 Krasimira Aleksandrova,9 Antonia Trichopoulou,10,11 Pagona Lagiou,10 Dimitrios Trichopoulos,12,13 Domenico Palli,14 Sabina Sieri,15 Salvatore Panico,16 Rosario Tumino,17 Paolo Vineis,18,19 Jose Ramon Quiros,20 Genevieve Buckland,21 Maria-Jose Sanchez,22,23 Pilar Amiano,23,24 Maria-Dolores Chirlaque,23,25 Eva Ardanaz,23,26 Malin Sund,27 Per Lenner,28 Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita,29,30 Carla H van Gils,31 Petra HM Peeters,31,32 Sanda Krum-Hansen,33 Inger Torhild Gram,33 Eiliv Lund,33 Kay-Tee Khaw,34 Nick Wareham,35 Naomi E Allen,36 Timothy J Key,36 Isabelle Romieu,37 Sabina Rinaldi,37 Afshan Siddiq,32,38 David Cox,32 Elio Riboli,18 and Rudolf Kaakscorresponding author1
This report presents the results of surveillance on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in bovine animals, sheep, goats, cervids and other animal species, as well as genotyping in sheep, carried out in 2017 in the European Union (EU) according to Regulation (EC) 999/2001, and in Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. In total, 1,312,714 cattle were tested by the 28 EU Member States (MSs) which is a decrease of 3% compared with 2016; 18,526 were tested by the three non‐MSs. For the first time since bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) has been reported, no cases of classical BSE were reported in 2017. Six atypical BSE cases were reported by three different MSs: Spain 1 H‐BSE/2 L‐BSE; France 1 H‐BSE/1 L‐BSE; and Ireland 1 L‐BSE. Over the year, 314,547 sheep and 117,268 goats were tested in the EU. In sheep, 933 cases of scrapie were reported: 839 classical and unknown (145 index cases) by eight MSs and 94 atypical (89 index cases) by 13 MSs. Fourteen ovine scrapie cases were reported by Iceland and Norway. Of all classical scrapie cases, 98.2% occurred in sheep with genotypes of susceptible groups. The genotyping of a random sample in 21 MSs showed that 26.5% of the genotyped sheep carried genotypes of the susceptible groups. In goats 567 cases of scrapie were reported: 558 classical (42 index cases) by seven MSs and nine atypical (seven index cases) by five MSs. In total, 3,585 cervids were tested for TSE by ten MSs, mostly by Romania. All results were negative. Eleven cases of chronic wasting disease (CWD) cases were reported in cervids by Norway: nine wild reindeer, one moose and, for the first time ever, one red deer. In total, 185 animals from five species other than cattle, small ruminants and cervids were tested by three MSs, with negative results.
TSE, BSE, CWD, scrapie, classical, atypical, surveillance
The European Union summary report on surveillance for the presence of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) in 2017
European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)
Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substantial risks to both mothers and infants, including obstetric complications, preterm delivery, and low birthweight infants. This report provides state-specific information for the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2014 and compares birth outcomes that occurred in 2014 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2013 and 2014) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2014.
Description of System
In 1996, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493). Data are collected through the National ART Surveillance System (NASS), a web-based data collection system developed by CDC. This report includes data from 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico).
In 2014, a total of 169,568 ART procedures (range: 124 in Wyoming to 21,018 in California) with the intent to transfer at least one embryo were performed in 458 U.S. fertility clinics and reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 56,028 live-birth deliveries (range: 52 in Wyoming to 7,230 in California) and 68,782 infants born (range: 64 in Wyoming to 8,793 in California). Nationally, the total number of ART procedures performed per million women of reproductive age (15-44 years), a proxy measure of the ART usage rate, was 2,647 (range: 364 in Puerto Rico to 6,726 in Massachusetts). ART use exceeded the national average in 13 reporting areas (Connecticut, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia). Eight reporting areas (Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York) had rates of ART use exceeding 1.5 times the national average.
Nationally, among ART transfer procedures in patients using fresh embryos from their own eggs, the average number of embryos transferred increased with increasing age of the woman (1.7 among women aged <35 years, 1.9 among women aged 35-37 years, and 2.3 among women aged >37 years). Among women aged <35 years, who typically are considered to be good candidates for elective single embryo transfer (eSET) procedures, the national eSET rate was 28.5% (range: 4.3% in Puerto Rico to 67.9% in Delaware). In 2014, ART contributed to 1.6% of all infants born in the United States (range: 0.4% in Puerto Rico to 4.7% in Massachusetts) and 18.3% of all multiple-birth infants (range: 5.5% in Alaska and West Virginia to 37.3% in Hawaii), including 18.0% of all twin infants (range: 5.2% in some states to 36.2% in Hawaii) and 26.4% of all triplets and higher-order infants (range: 0% in some states to 65.2% in Hawaii). Percentages of live births that were multiple-birth deliveries were higher among infants conceived with ART (39.4%; range: 11.5% in Delaware to 55.6% in Puerto Rico) than among all infants born in the total birth population (3.5%; range: 2.2% in Puerto Rico to 4.4% in New Jersey). Approximately 38.0% of ART-conceived infants were twin infants, and 2.0% were triplets and higher-order infants. ART-conceived twins accounted for approximately 95.3% of all ART-conceived infants born in multiple deliveries. Nationally, infants conceived with ART contributed to 5.5% of all low birthweight (<2,500 g) infants (range: 1.2% in West Virginia to 14.2% in Massachusetts). Among ART-conceived infants, 27.8% were low birthweight (range: 10.6% in Delaware to 44.4% in Puerto Rico), compared with 8.0% among all infants (range: 5.9% in Alaska to 11.3% in Mississippi). ART-conceived infants contributed to 4.7% of all preterm (<37 weeks) infants (range: 1.2% in Puerto Rico to 13.4% in Massachusetts). Percentages of preterm births were higher among infants conceived with ART (33.2%; range: 18.9% in the District of Columbia to 45.9% in Puerto Rico) than among all infants born in the total birth population (11.3%; range: 8.5% in California to 16.0% in Mississippi). The percentage of ART-conceived infants who were low birthweight was 8.9% (range: 3.2% in some states to 16.1% in Vermont) among singletons and 55.2% (range: 38.5% in Delaware to 77.8% in Alaska) among twins; the corresponding percentages of low birthweight infants among all infants born were 6.3% for singletons (range: 4.6% in Alaska, North Dakota, and Oregon to 9.5% in Puerto Rico) and 55.2% for twins (range: 46.1% in Alaska to 65.6% in Mississippi). The percentage of ART-conceived infants who were preterm was 13.2% (range: 7.5% in Rhode Island to 23.4% in West Virginia) among singletons and 62.2% (range: 33.3% in some states to 81.4% in Mississippi) among twins; the corresponding percentages of preterm infants among all infants were 9.7% for singletons (range: 1.7% in the District of Columbia to 14.2% in Mississippi) and 56.6% for twins (range: 47.2% in Vermont to 66.9% in Wyoming). Interpretation The percentage of infants conceived with ART varied considerably by reporting area. Multiple births from ART contributed to a substantial proportion of all twins, triplets, and higher-order infants born. Low birthweight and preterm infant birth rates were disproportionately higher among ART-conceived infants than among the overall birth population. Although women aged <35 years are typically considered good candidates for eSET, on average two embryos were transferred per ART procedure with women in this group. Compared with ART-conceived singletons, ART-conceived twins were approximately five times more likely to be born preterm and approximately six times more likely to be born with low birthweight. Singleton infants conceived with ART had higher percentages of preterm birth and low birthweight than all singleton infants born in the United States. ART use per population unit was geographically variable, with 13 reporting areas showing ART use higher than the national rate. Of the four states (Illinois, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Rhode Island) with comprehensive statewide-mandated health insurance coverage for ART procedures (i.e., coverage for at least four cycles of IVF), three (Illinois, Massachusetts, and New Jersey) had rates of ART use exceeding 1.5 times the national rate. This type of mandated insurance has been associated with greater use of ART and likely accounts for some of the difference in per capita ART use observed among states. Public Health Action Reducing the number of embryos transferred and increasing use of eSET when clinically appropriate could help reduce multiple births and related adverse health consequences. Because twins account for the majority of ART-conceived multiple births, improved provider practices and patient education and counseling on the maternal and infant health risks of having twins are needed. Although ART contributes to high percentages of multiple births, other factors not investigated in this report (e.g., delayed childbearing and use of non-ART fertility treatments) also contribute to multiple births and warrant further study.
Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance — United States, 2014
Saswati Sunderam, PhD,corresponding author1 Dmitry M. Kissin, MD,1 Sara B. Crawford, PhD,1 Suzanne G. Folger, PhD,1 Denise J. Jamieson, MD,1 Lee Warner, PhD,1 and Wanda D. Barfield, MD1
2017 Feb 10