DMSO : ≥ 150 mg/mL (464.21 mM)
*"≥" means soluble, but saturation unknown.
563.2±60.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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This work focuses on improving the biodegradability of hospital urines polluted with antibiotics by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs). To do this, chloramphenicol (CAP) has been used as a model compound and the influence of anodic material (Boron Doped Diamond (BDD) and Mixed Metal Oxide (MMO)) and current density (1.25-5 mA cm-2) on the toxicity and the biodegradability was evaluated. Results show that a complete CAP removal was attained using BDD anodes, being the process more efficient at the lowest current density tested (1.25 mA cm-2). Conversely, after passing 4 Ah dm-3, only 35% of CAP removal is reached using MMO anodes, regardless of the current density applied. Furthermore, a kinetic study demonstrated that there is a clear competitive oxidation between the target antibiotic and the organic compounds naturally contained in urine, regardless the current density and the anode material used. During the first stages of the electrolysis, acute toxicity is around 1% EC50 but it increases once CAP and its organic intermediates have been degraded. The formation and accumulation of inorganic oxidants may justify the remaining acute toxicity. This also helps to explain the trend observed in the rapid biodegradability assays. Finally, a 60% of standard biodegradability (Zahn-Wellens test) was achieved which suggests that electrochemical oxidation with BDD anodes could be the most appropriate technology to reduce the hazard of hospital urines at the operating conditions tested.
Biodegradability; Chloramphenicol; Electrochemical oxidation; Hospital effluents; Urine.
Improving the biodegradability of hospital urines polluted with chloramphenicol by the application of electrochemical oxidation
Miguel Herraiz-Carbone 1, Salvador Cotillas 1, Engracia Lacasa 1, angela Moratalla 2, Pablo CaNizares 2, Manuel A Rodrigo 2, Cristina Saez 3
2020 Jul 10;
The single-chamber bio-photoelectrochemical system (BPES) with a BiOBr photocathode was developed for acid orange 7 (AO7), 2,4 dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and chloramphenicol (CAP) degradation under solar irradiation. Photoelectrochemical characterizations showed that the optimized BiOBr-photocathode exhibited great light-response property and excellent electrochemcial performance. Moreover, desired TOC removals were achieved for various organic pollutants, with the values of 90.97% (AO7), 81.41% (2,4-DCP) and 78.47% (CAP). Besides, the lower cathode potentials in the illuminated BPESs were favorable to efficient pollutants degradation. Significant microbial community shifts were observed among the inoculation and anodic biofilms from the BPES, and the most dominated species in anodic biofilms acclimated to various pollutants were Geobacter and Pseudomonas, which have the abilities of extracellular electrons transfer and organics degradation. Some other species that different from the inoculation were also identified from the BPES biofilms. This study suggested that BPES had great potential for refractory organics degradation.
Bio-photoelectrochemical system; Microbial community; Photocathode potential; Refractory organics degradation.
Different refractory organic substances degradation and microbial community shift in the single-chamber bio-photoelectrochemical system
Shanming Qin 1, Yanping Hou 2, Guiyun Yuan 1, Zebin Yu 3, Lingli Tu 1, Yimin Yan 1, Shuo Chen 1, Jiangli Sun 1, Danquan Lan 1, Shuangfei Wang 4
The pipe deposits from water distribution network are iron-wastes, which could be used as a catalyst of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). This paper prepared one main composition (α-FeOOH) of pipe deposits and compared the difference of chloramphenicol (CAP) degradation by α-FeOOH-activated hydrogen peroxide/persulfate and α-FeOOH-activated hydrogen peroxide/peroxymonosulfate with hydroxylamine assistance. Several key affecting factors were investigated. The results revealed that the double-oxidant system has a synergy effect in CAP degradation process. The hydroxyl radicals were identified as the predominant radicals in two different degradation processes via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The possible degradation pathways and products were confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This study provided a theoretic research for pollutant removal by taking full advantage of pipe deposits and advance the development of water quality security in water distribution network in future.
Chloramphenicol; Double-oxidant; Synergy effect; α-FeOOH.
Degradation of chloramphenicol by α-FeOOH-activated two different double-oxidant systems with hydroxylamine assistance
Fu He 1, Wencheng Ma 2, Dan Zhong 3, Yixing Yuan 4