Cholyltaurine/[14C]-Taurocholic acid/α-L-arabino-Hexopyranose, 2-(carboxyamino)-2-deoxy-3-O-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl-, 4-(hydrogen sulfate), (5ξ)-/chondroitin-4-sulfate/chonodroitinsufuric acid/(5ξ)-2-(Carboxyamino)-2-deoxy-3-O-β-D-glucopyranuronosyl-4-O-sulfo-α-L-arabino-hexopyranose/2-[(R)-4-((3R,5S,7R,8R,9S,10S,12S,13R,14S,17R)-3,7,12-trihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-hexadecahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)pentanoylamino]ethanesulfonic acid/Chondroitin (sulfate)
Chondroitin sulfate, one of five classes of glycosaminoglycans, has been widely used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Chondroitin sulfate reduces inflammation mediators and the apoptotic process and is able to reduce protein production of inflammatory cytokines, iNOS and MMPs.
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Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are principal pericellular and extracellular components that form regulatory milieu involving numerous biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Diverse functions of CSPGs can be mainly attributed to structural variability of their polysaccharide moieties, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG). Comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for CS biosynthesis and its catabolic processes is required in order to understand those functions.
SCOPE OF REVIEW:
Here, we focus on recent advances in the study of enzymatic regulatory pathways for CS biosynthesis including successive modification/degradation, distinct CS functions, and disease phenotypes that have been revealed by perturbation of the respective enzymes in vitro and in vivo.
Fine-tuned machineries for CS production/degradation are crucial for the functional expression of CS chains in developmental and pathophysiological processes.
Control of enzymes responsible for CS biosynthesis/catabolism is a potential target for therapeutic intervention for the CS-associated disorders.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Biosynthesis/catabolism; C4ST; C6ST; CS; ChABC; ChGn; ChPF; ChSy; Chn; Chondroitin sulfate; D4ST; DS; DS-epi; EXT; EXT-like; EXTL; FAM; GAG; Gal; GalNAc; GalNAc 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase; GalNAc transferase; GalNAc4S-6ST; GalNAcT; GalT-I; GalT-II; GlcA; GlcA C-5 epimerase (DS epimerase); GlcA transferase-II; GlcAT-I; GlcAT-II; GlcNAc; GlcNAc transferase; GlcNAcT; Glycosaminoglycan; Glycosyltransferase; HA; HNK-1; HS; HSV; HYAL; N-acetylgalactosamine; N-acetylglucosamine; PG; Proteoglycan; Ser; Sulfotransferase; TM; UST; Xyl; XylT; chondroitin; chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase; chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase; chondroitin GalNAc transferase; chondroitin polymerizing factor; chondroitin sulfate; chondroitin synthase; chondroitinase ABC; dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase; dermatan sulfate; exostosin; family with sequence similarity; galactose; glucuronic acid; glycosaminoglycan; heparan sulfate; herpes simplex virus; human natural killer-1; hyaluronan; mammalian hyaluronidase; proteoglycan; serine; thrombomodulin; uronyl 2-O-sulfotransferase; xylose; xylosyltransferase; β1,3-galactosyltransferase-II; β1,3-glucuronyltransferase-I; β1,4-galactosyltransferase-I
Biosynthesis and function of chondroitin sulfate.
Mikami T1, Kitagawa H.
The industrial production of chondroitin sulfate (CS) uses animal tissue sources as raw material derived from different terrestrial or marine species of animals. CS possesses a heterogeneous structure and physical-chemical profile in different species and tissues, responsible for the various and more specialized functions of these macromolecules. Moreover, mixes of different animal tissues and sources are possible, producing a CS final product having varied characteristics and not well identified profile, influencing oral absorption and activity. Finally, different extraction and purification processes may introduce further modifications of the CS structural characteristics and properties and may lead to extracts having a variable grade of purity, limited biological effects, presence of contaminants causing problems of safety and reproducibility along with not surely identified origin. These aspects pose a serious problem for the final consumers of the pharmaceutical or nutraceutical products mainly related to the traceability of CS and to the declaration of the real origin of the active ingredient and its content. In this review, specific, sensitive and validated analytical quality controls such as electrophoresis, eHPLC (enzymatic HPLC) and HPSEC (high-performance size-exclusion chromatography) able to assure CS quality and origin are illustrated and discussed.
chondroitin sulfate; food supplements; glycosaminoglycans; nutraceuticals; osteoarthritis
Chondroitin Sulfate Safety and Quality.
2019 Apr 12
Knee Osteoarthritis; Osteoarthritis; Treatment
Chondroitin sulfate for knee osteoarthritis.