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Of the 200+ serogroups of Vibrio cholerae, only O1 or O139 strains are reported to cause cholera, and mostly in endemic regions. Cholera outbreaks elsewhere are considered to be via importation of pathogenic strains. Using established animal models, we show that diverse V. cholerae strains indigenous to a non-endemic environment (Sydney, Australia), including non-O1/O139 serogroup strains, are able to both colonize the intestine and result in fluid accumulation despite lacking virulence factors believed to be important. Most strains lacked the type three secretion system considered a mediator of diarrhoea in non-O1/O13 V. cholerae. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) showed that the Sydney isolates did not form a single clade and were distinct from O1/O139 toxigenic strains. There was no correlation between genetic relatedness and the profile of virulence-associated factors. Current analyses of diseases mediated by V. cholerae focus on endemic regions, with only those strains that possess particular virulence factors considered pathogenic. Our data suggest that factors other than those previously well described are of potential importance in influencing disease outbreaks.
Vibrio cholerae, cholera, lateral genetic transfer, virulence, environmental
Indigenous Vibrio cholerae strains from a non-endemic region are pathogenic
Atiqul Islam,1,† Maurizio Labbate,1,† Steven P. Djordjevic,1 Munirul Alam,2 Aaron Darling,3 Jacqueline Melvold,1 Andrew J. Holmes,4 Fatema T. Johura,2 Alejandro Cravioto,5 Ian G. Charles,1 and H. W. Stokes1
Verticillium dahliae is a phytopathogenic fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt diseases responsible for considerable decreases in cotton yields. The lignification of cell wall appositions is a conserved basal defence mechanism in the plant innate immune response. However, the function of laccase in defence‐induced lignification has not been described. Screening of an SSH library of a resistant cotton cultivar, Jimian20, inoculated with V. dahliae revealed a laccase gene that was strongly induced by the pathogen. This gene was phylogenetically related to AtLAC15 and contained domains conserved by laccases; therefore, we named it GhLAC15. Quantitative reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction indicated that GhLAC15 maintained higher expression levels in tolerant than in susceptible cultivars. Overexpression of GhLAC15 enhanced cell wall lignification, resulting in increased total lignin, G monolignol and G/S ratio, which significantly improved the Verticillium wilt resistance of transgenic Arabidopsis. In addition, the levels of arabinose and xylose were higher in transgenic plants than in wild‐type plants, which resulted in transgenic Arabidopsis plants being less easily hydrolysed. Furthermore, suppression of the transcriptional level of GhLAC15 resulted in an increase in susceptibility in cotton. The content of monolignol and the G/S ratio were lower in silenced cotton plants, which led to resistant cotton cv. Jimian20 becoming susceptible. These results demonstrate that GhLAC15 enhances Verticillium wilt resistance via an increase in defence‐induced lignification and arabinose and xylose accumulation in the cell wall of Gossypium hirsutum. This study broadens our knowledge of defence‐induced lignification and cell wall modifications as defence mechanisms against V. dahliae.
cell wall composition, defence‐induced lignification, GhLAC15, Gossypium hirsutum, Verticillium wilt resistance
The cotton laccase gene GhLAC15 enhances Verticillium wilt resistance via an increase in defence‐induced lignification and lignin components in the cell walls of plants
Yan Zhang, 1 , † Lizhu Wu, 1 , † Xingfen Wang, 1 Bin Chen, 1 Jing Zhao, 1 Jing Cui, 1 Zhikun Li, 1 Jun Yang, 1 Liqiang Wu, 1 Jinhua Wu, 1 Guiyin Zhang, 1 and Zhiying Macorresponding author 1
Flavonoids and carotenoids possess beneficial physiological effects, such as high antioxidant capacity, anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as protective effects against UV light. The covalent coupling of hydrophobic carotenoids with hydrophilic flavonoids, such as daidzein and chrysin, was achieved, resulting in new amphipathic structures. 7-Azidohexyl ethers of daidzein and chrysin were prepared in five steps, and their azide-alkyne [4 + 2] cycloaddition with pentynoates of 8′-apo-β-carotenol, zeaxanthin, and capsanthin afforded carotenoid-flavonoid conjugates. The trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity against ABTS•+ radical cation and self-assembly of the final products were examined. The 1:1 flavonoid-carotenoid hybrids generally showed higher antioxidant activity than their parent flavonoids but lower than that of the corresponding carotenoids. The diflavonoid hybrids of zeaxanthin and capsanthin, however, were found to exhibit a synergistic enhancement in antioxidant capacities. ECD (electronic circular dichroism) and UV-vis analysis of zeaxanthin-flavonoid conjugates revealed that they form different optically active J-aggregates in acetone/water and tetrahydrofuran/water mixtures depending on the solvent ratio and type of the applied aprotic polar solvent, while the capsanthin derivatives showed no self-assembly. The zeaxanthin bis-triazole conjugates with daidzein and with chrysin, differing only in the position of a phenolic hydroxyl group, showed significantly different aggregation profile upon the addition of water.
carotenoids, flavonoids, click-reaction, antioxidant capacity, supramolecular chirality, zeaxanthin-flavonoid conjugates, electronic circular dichroism
Study on the Synthesis, Antioxidant Properties, and Self-Assembly of Carotenoid-Flavonoid Conjugates
Ildiko Linzembold,1 Dalma Czett,1 Katalin Boddi,1 Tibor Kurtan,2 Sandor Balazs Kiraly,2 Gergely Gulyas-Fekete,1 Aniko Takatsy,1 Tamas Lorand,1 Jozsef Deli,1,3 Attila Agocs,1 and Veronika Nagy1,*