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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:85022-69-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Medin is a common amyloidogenic protein in humans that accumulates in arteries with advanced age and has been implicated in vascular degeneration. Medin’s effect on endothelial function remains unknown. The aims are to assess medin’s effects on human arteriole endothelial function and identify potential mechanisms underlying medin-induced vascular injury.
Methods and results
Ex vivo human adipose and leptomeningeal arterioles were exposed (1 h) to medin (0.1, 1, or 5 µM) without or with FPS-ZM1 [100 µM, receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE)-specific inhibitor] and endothelium-dependent function (acetylcholine dilator response) and endothelium-independent function (dilator response to nitric oxide donor diethylenetriamine NONOate) were compared with baseline control. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to medin without or with FPS-ZM1 and oxidative and nitrative stress, cell viability, and pro-inflammatory signaling measures were obtained. Medin caused impaired endothelial function (vs. baseline response: −45.2 ± 5.1 and −35.8 ± 7.9% in adipose and leptomeningeal arterioles, respectively, each P < 0.05). Dilator response to NONOate was not significantly changed. Medin decreased arteriole and endothelial cell nitric oxide production, increased superoxide production, reduced endothelial cell viability, proliferation, and migration. Medin increased gene and protein expression of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 via activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB). Medin-induced endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress were reversed by antioxidant polyethylene glycol superoxide dismutase and by RAGE inhibitor FPS-ZM1. Conclusions Medin causes human microvascular endothelial dysfunction through oxidative and nitrative stress and promotes pro-inflammatory signaling in endothelial cells. These effects appear to be mediated via RAGE. The findings represent a potential novel mechanism of vascular injury.
Medin, Amyloid, Endothelial function, Inflammation, Oxidative stress
Amyloidogenic medin induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular inflammation through the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts
Raymond Q. Migrino, Hannah A. Davies, Seth Truran, Nina Karamanova, Daniel A. Franco, Thomas G. Beach, Geidy E. Serrano, Danh Truong, Mehdi Nikkhah, Jillian Madine
Transcription factors are involved to varying extents in the health and survival of neurons in the brain and a better understanding of their roles with respect to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) could lead to the development of additional treatment strategies. Sp1 is a transcription factor that responds to inflammatory signals occurring in the AD brain. It is known to regulate genes with demonstrated importance in AD, and we have previously found it upregulated in the AD brain and in brains of transgenic AD model mice. To better understand the role of Sp1 in AD, we tested whether we could affect memory function (measured with a battery of behavioral tests discriminating different aspects of cognitive function) in a transgenic model of AD by pharmaceutical modulation of Sp1. We found that inhibition of Sp1 function in transgenic AD model mice increased memory deficits, while there were no changes in sensorimotor or anxiety tests. Aβ42 and Aβ40 peptide levels were significantly higher in the treated mice, indicating that Sp1 elevation in AD could be a functionally protective response. Circulating levels of CXCL1 (KC) decreased following treatment with mithramycin, while a battery of other cytokines, including IL-1α, IL-6, INF-γ and MCP-1, were unchanged. Gene expression levels for several genes important to neuronal health were determined by qRT-PCR, and none of these appeared to change at the transcriptional level.
Alzheimer’s disease, neurodegeneration, transcription factor, Sp1, transgenic mice, cognitive function, neurons, gene expression
Transcription factor Sp1 inhibition, memory, and cytokines in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease
Bruce A Citron, Jessica N Saykally, Chuanhai Cao, John S Dennis, Melissa Runfeldt, Gary W Arendash
Climate change is altering the conditions for tree recruitment, growth, and survival, and impacting forest community composition. Across southeast Alaska, USA, and British Columbia, Canada, Callitropsis nootkatensis (Alaska yellow‐cedar) is experiencing extensive climate change‐induced canopy mortality due to fine‐root death during soil freezing events following warmer winters and the loss of insulating snowpack. Here, we examine the effects of ongoing, climate‐driven canopy mortality on forest community composition and identify potential shifts in stand trajectories due to the loss of a single canopy species. We sampled canopy and regenerating forest communities across the extent of C. nootkatensis decline in southeast Alaska to quantify the effects of climate, community, and stand‐level drivers on C. nootkatensis canopy mortality and regeneration as well as postdecline regenerating community composition. Across the plot network, C. nootkatensis exhibited significantly higher mortality than co‐occurring conifers across all size classes and locations. Regenerating community composition was highly variable but closely related to the severity of C. nootkatensis mortality. Callitropsis nootkatensis canopy mortality was correlated with winter temperatures and precipitation as well as local soil drainage, with regenerating community composition and C. nootkatensis regeneration abundances best explained by available seed source. In areas of high C. nootkatensis mortality, C. nootkatensis regeneration was low and replaced by Tsuga. Our study suggests that climate‐induced forest mortality is driving alternate successional pathways in forests where C. nootkatensis was once a major component. These pathways are likely to lead to long‐term shifts in forest community composition and stand dynamics. Our analysis fills a critical knowledge gap on forest ecosystem response and rearrangement following the climate‐driven decline of a single species, providing new insight into stand dynamics in a changing climate. As tree species across the globe are increasingly stressed by climate change‐induced alteration of suitable habitat, identifying the autecological factors contributing to successful regeneration, or lack thereof, will provide key insight into forest resilience and persistence on the landscape.
Callitropsis nootkatensis, climate change, community composition, diversity, forest mortality, yellow‐cedar decline
From canopy to seed: Loss of snow drives directional changes in forest composition
Sarah M. Bisbing, Brian J. Buma, Lauren E. Oakes, John Krapek, Allison L. Bidlack