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Whether neurons encode information through their spike rates, their activity times or both is an ongoing debate in systems neuroscience. Here, we tested whether humans can discriminate between a pair of temporal odor mixtures (TOMs) composed of the same two components delivered in rapid succession in either one temporal order or its reverse. These TOMs presumably activate the same olfactory neurons but at different times and thus differ mainly in the time of neuron activation. We found that most participants could hardly discriminate between TOMs, although they easily discriminated between a TOM and one of its components. By contrast, participants succeeded in discriminating between the TOMs when they were notified of their successive nature in advance. We thus suggest that the time of glomerulus activation can be exploited to extract odor-related information, although it does not change the odor perception substantially, as should be expected from an odor code per se.
Research organism: Human
The contribution of temporal coding to odor coding and odor perception in humans
Ofer Perl,1 Nahum Nahum,2 Katya Belelovsky,1 and Rafi Haddad1
2020 Feb 7.
Estimating population sizes and genetic diversity are key factors to understand and predict population dynamics. Marine species have been a difficult challenge in that respect, due to the difficulty in assessing population sizes and the open nature of such populations. Small, isolated islands with endemic species offer an opportunity to groundtruth population size estimates with empirical data and investigate the genetic consequences of such small populations. Here we focus on two endemic species of reef fish, the Clipperton damselfish, Stegastes baldwini, and the Clipperton angelfish, Holacanthus limbaughi, on Clipperton Atoll, tropical eastern Pacific. Visual surveys, performed over almost two decades and four expeditions, and genetic surveys based on genomic RAD sequences, allowed us to estimate kinship and genetic diversity, as well as to compare population size estimates based on visual surveys with effective population sizes based on genetics. We found that genetic and visual estimates of population numbers were remarkably similar. S. baldwini and H. limbaughi had population sizes of approximately 800,000 and 60,000, respectively. Relatively small population sizes resulted in low genetic diversity and the presence of apparent kinship. This study emphasizes the importance of small isolated islands as models to study population dynamics of marine organisms.
Clipperton Atoll as a model to study small marine populations: Endemism and the genomic consequences of small population size
Nicole L. Crane, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,1 Juliette Tariel, Data curation, Formal analysis, Writing - review & editing,2 Jennifer E. Caselle, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,3 Alan M. Friedlander, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,4,5 D. Ross Robertson, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,6 and Giacomo Bernardi, Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing - original draft2,*
2018 Jun 27.
In the US, African Americans (AAs) are four times more likely to develop end stage renal disease (ESRD) but half as likely to receive a kidney transplant as whites. Patient interest in kidney transplantation is a fundamental step in the kidney transplant referral process. Our aim was to determine the factors associated with the willingness to receive a kidney transplant among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients in a predominantly minority population.
CKD patients from an outpatient nephrology clinic at a safety-net hospital (n = 213) participated in a cross-sectional survey from April to June, 2013 to examine the factors associated with willingness to receive a kidney transplant among a predominantly minority population. The study questionnaire was developed from previously published literature. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with willingness to undergo a kidney transplant.
Respondents were primarily AAs (91.0 %), mostly female (57.6 %) and middle aged (51.6 %). Overall, 53.9 % of participants were willing to undergo a kidney transplant. Willingness to undergo a kidney transplant was associated with a positive perception towards living kidney donation (OR 7.31, 95 % CI: 1.31-40.88), willingness to attend a class about kidney transplant (OR = 7.15, CI: 1.76-29.05), perception that a kidney transplant will improve quality of life compared to dialysis (OR = 5.40, 95 % CI: 1.97-14.81), and obtaining information on kidney transplant from other sources vs. participant’s physician (OR =3.30, 95 % CI: 1.13-9.67), when compared with their reference groups.
It is essential that the quality of life benefits of kidney transplantation be known to individuals with CKD to increase their willingness to undergo kidney transplantation. Availability of multiple sources of information and classes on kidney transplantation may also contribute to willingness to undergo kidney transplantation, especially among AAs.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12882-015-0186-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
African Americans, Willingness, Kidney transplant, CKD, Perceptions, Attitudes, Knowledge
Factors affecting willingness to receive a kidney transplant among minority patients at an urban safety-net hospital: a cross-sectional survey
Titilayo O. Ilori,corresponding author Nosayaba Enofe, Anju Oommen, Oluwaseun Odewole, Akinlolu Ojo, Laura Plantinga, Stephen Pastan, Justin B. Echouffo-Tcheugui, and William McClellan
2015 Nov 21