White crystalline powder
EXTRAN AP 22/monohydrate citric acid/ACETONE D/ACETONE 300/Citric acid hydrate/citric acid monohydrate powder/1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy-, hydrate (1:1)/citric acid hydride/citric/2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid hydrate (1:1)/ACETONE 5000/2-Hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid hydrate (1:1)/ACETONUM/2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid hydrate/METHYL KETONE/Citric acid monohydrate/PROPANONE/Acide 2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylique hydrate
56 °C760 mm Hg(lit.)
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:5949-29-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Citric acid naturally exists in fruits and vegetables. However, it is not the naturally occurring citric acid, but the manufactured citric acid (MCA) that is used extensively as a food and beverage additive. Approximately 99% of the world’s production of MCA is carried out using the fungus Aspergillus niger since 1919. Aspergilus niger is a known allergen. The FDA placed MCA under the category of GRAS without any research to substantiate this claim. In 2016, 2.3 million tons of MCA were produced, predominantly in China, and approximately 70% is used as a food or beverage additive. There have been no scientific studies performed to evaluate the safety of MCA when ingested in substantial amounts and with chronic exposure. We present four case reports of patients with a history of significant and repetitive inflammatory reactions including respiratory symptoms, joint pain, irritable bowel symptoms, muscular pain and enervation following ingestion of foods, beverages or vitamins containing MCA. We believe that ingestion of the MCA may lead to a harmful inflammatory cascade which manifests differently in different individuals based on their genetic predisposition and susceptibility, and that the use of MCA as an additive in consumable products warrants further studies to document its safety.
Potential role of the common food additive manufactured citric acid in eliciting significant inflammatory reactions contributing to serious disease states: A series of four case reports
Iliana E. Sweis⁎ and Bryan C. Cressey
2018 Aug 9
Polymer hydrogels are ideal scaffolds for both tissue engineering and drug delivery. A great advantage of poly(amino acid)-based hydrogels is their high similarity to natural proteins. However, their expensive and complicated synthesis often limits their application. The use of poly(aspartic acid) (PASP) seems an appropriate solution for this problem due to the relatively cheap and simple synthesis of PASP. Using amino acids not only as building blocks in the polymer backbone but also as cross-linkers can improve the biocompatibility and the biodegradability of the hydrogel. In this paper, PASP cross-linked with cystamine (CYS) and lysine-methylester (LYS) was introduced as fully amino acid-based polymer hydrogel. Gels were synthesized employing six different ratios of CYS and LYS. The pH dependent swelling degree and the concentration of the elastically active chain were determined. After reduction of the disulfide bonds of CYS, the presence of thiol side groups was also detected. To determine the concentration of the reactive cross-linkers in the hydrogels, a new method based on the examination of the swelling behavior was established. Using metoprolol as a model drug, cell proliferation and drug release kinetics were studied at different LYS contents and in the presence of thiol groups. The optimal ratio of cross-linkers for the proliferation of periodontal ligament cells was found to be 60−80% LYS and 20−40% CYS. The reductive conditions resulted in an increased drug release due to the cleavage of disulfide bridges in the hydrogels. Consequently, these hydrogels provide new possibilities in the fields of both tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery.
biocompatibility, cystamine, hydrogel, lysine, poly(amino acid), poly(aspartic acid), polymer
Fully amino acid-based hydrogel as potential scaffold for cell culturing and drug delivery
David Juriga,1 Evelin Sipos,1 Orsolya Hegedűs,2 Gabor Varga,2 Miklos Zrinyi,1 Krisztina S Nagy,corresponding author1,2 and Angela Jedlovszky-Hajdúcorresponding author1
2019 Dec 27
Nanoparticle dissolution in local milieu can affect their ecotoxicity and therapeutic applications. For example, carboxylic acid release from plant roots can solubilize nanoceria in the rhizosphere, affecting cerium uptake in plants. Nanoparticle dispersions were dialyzed against ten carboxylic acid solutions for up to 30 weeks; the membrane passed cerium-ligand complexes but not nanoceria. Dispersion and solution samples were analyzed for cerium by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Particle size and shape distributions were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanoceria dissolved in all carboxylic acid solutions, leading to cascades of progressively smaller nanoparticles and producing soluble products. The dissolution rate was proportional to nanoparticle surface area. Values of the apparent dissolution rate coefficients varied with the ligand. Both nanoceria size and shape distributions were altered by the dissolution process. Density functional theory (DFT) estimates for some possible Ce(IV) products showed that their dissolution was thermodynamically favored. However, dissolution rate coefficients did not generally correlate with energy of formation values. The surface-controlled dissolution model provides a quantitative measure for nanoparticle dissolution rates: further studies of dissolution cascades should lead to improved understanding of mechanisms and processes at nanoparticle surfaces.
Surface-controlled dissolution rates: a case study of nanoceria in carboxylic acid solutions
Eric A. Grulke,a Matthew J. Beck,a,b Robert A. Yokel,c Jason M. Unrine,d Uschi M. Graham,c and Matthew L. Hancocka
2019 Apr 4