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To create a framework for genetic dissection of hexaploid triticale, six populations of doubled haploid (DH) lines were developed from pairwise hybrids of high-yielding winter triticale cultivars. The six populations comprise between 97 and 231 genotyped DH lines each, totaling 957 DH lines. A consensus genetic map spans 4593.9 cM is composed of 1576 unique DArT markers. The maps reveal several structural rearrangements in triticale genomes. In preliminary tests of the populations and maps, markers specific to wheat segments of the engineered rye chromosome 1R (RM1B) were identified. Example QTL mapping of days to heading in cv. Krakowiak revealed loci on chromosomes 2BL and 2R responsible for extended vernalization requirement, and candidate genes were identified. The material is available to all parties interested in triticale genetics.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1007/s11032-018-0804-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Consensus map, DArT markers, Double haploid lines, Triticale, Vernalization, QTL
Populations of doubled haploids for genetic mapping in hexaploid winter triticale
M. Tyrka,corresponding author1 S. Oleszczuk,2 J. Rabiza-Swider,3 H. Wos,4 M. Wedzony,5 J. Zimny,2 A. Ponitka,6 A. Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina,6 R. J. Metzger,7 P. S. Baenziger,8 and A. J. Lukaszewski9
A novel brush optode was designed and demonstrated to overcome poor optical contact with the scalp that can occur during functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and imaging due to light obstruction by hair. The brush optodes were implemented as an attachment to existing commercial flat-faced (conventional) fiber bundle optodes. The goal was that the brush optodes would thread through hair and improve optical contact on subjects with dense hair. Simulations and experiments were performed to assess the magnitude of these improvements. FNIRS measurements on 17 subjects with varying hair colors (blonde, brown, and black) and hair densities (0-2.96 hairs/mm2) were performed during a finger tapping protocol for both flat and brush optodes. In addition to reaching a study success rate of almost 100% when using the brush optode extensions, the measurement setup times were reduced by a factor of three. Furthermore, the brush optodes enabled improvements in the activation signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by up to a factor of ten as well as significant (p < 0.05) increases in the detected area of activation (dAoA). The measured improvements in SNR were matched by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of photon propagation through scalp and hair. In addition, an analytical model was derived to mathematically estimate the observed light power losses due to different hair colors and hair densities. Interestingly, the derived analytical formula produced excellent estimates of the experimental data and MC simulation results despite several simplifying assumptions. The analytical model enables researchers to readily estimate the light power losses due to obstruction by hair for both flat-faced fiber bundles and individual fibers for a given subject. OCIS codes: (170.2655) Functional monitoring and imaging, (170.3880) Medical and biological imaging, (300.6340) Spectroscopy, infrared
Improving optical contact for functional near‑infrared brain spectroscopy and imaging with brush optodes
Bilal Khan,1,* Chester Wildey,2 Robert Francis,3 Fenghua Tian,1 Mauricio R. Delgado,4,5 Hanli Liu,1 Duncan MacFarlane,3 and George Alexandrakis1
2012 May 1
The flat periwinkles, Littorina fabalis and L. obtusata, are two sister species widely distributed throughout the Northern Atlantic shores with high potential to inform us about the process of ecological speciation in the intertidal. However, whether gene flow has occurred during their divergence is still a matter of debate. A comprehensive assessment of the genetic diversity of these species is also lacking and their main glacial refugia and dispersal barriers remain largely unknown. In order to fill these gaps, we sequenced two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear fragments to perform a phylogeographic analysis of flat periwinkles across their distribution range.
We identified two main clades largely composed by species-specific haplotypes corresponding to L. obtusata and L. fabalis, with moderate to strong support, respectively. Importantly, a model of divergence with gene flow between the two species (from L. obtusata to L. fabalis) was better supported, both in Iberia and in northern-central Europe. Three mitochondrial clades were detected within L. fabalis and two within L. obtusata, with strong divergence between Iberia and the remaining populations. The largest component of the genetic variance within each species was explained by differences between geographic regions associated with these clades. Our data suggests that overall intraspecific genetic diversity is similar between the two flat periwinkle species and that populations from Iberia tend to be less diverse than populations from northern-central Europe.
The phylogeographic analysis of this sister-species pair supports divergence with gene flow. This system thus provides us with the opportunity to study the contribution of gene flow and natural selection during diversification. The distribution of the different clades suggests the existence of glacial refugia in Iberia and northern-central Europe for both species, with a main phylogeographic break between these regions. Although the genetic diversity results are not fully conclusive, the lower diversity observed in Iberia could reflect marginal conditions at the southern limit of their distribution range during the current interglacial period.
Calreticulin, Genetic diversity, Glaciations, Hybridization, Introgression, Marine gastropods, Mitochondrial DNA, Thioredoxin peroxidase 2, Phylogeography, Refugia
Phylogeographic history of flat periwinkles, Littorina fabalis and L. obtusata
Graciela Sotelo,1,2 Marten Duvetorp,3 Diana Costa,1 Marina Panova,3 Kerstin Johannesson,3 and Rui Fariacorresponding author1,2,4