This product is isolated and purified from the rhizome of Curcuma zedoaria
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
343.7ºC at 760 mmHg
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Variation and differences of MRSA transmission within and between healthcare settings are not well understood. This variability is critical for understanding the potential impact of infection control interventions and could aid in the evaluation of future intervention strategies. We fit a Bayesian transmission model to detailed individual-level MRSA surveillance data from over 230 Veterans Affairs (VA) hospitals and nursing homes. Our approach disentangles the effects of potential confounders, including length of stay, admission prevalence, and clearance, estimating dynamic transmission model parameters and temporal trends. The median baseline transmission rate in hospitals was approximately four-fold higher than in nursing homes, and declined in 46% of hospitals and 9% of nursing homes, resulting in a median transmission rate reduction of 43% across hospitals and an increase of 2% in nursing homes. For first admissions into an acute care facility, the median (range) importation probability was 10.5% (5.9%-18.4%), and was nearly twice as large, 18.7% (9.2%-37.4%), in nursing homes. This analysis found differences within and between hospitals and nursing homes. The transmission rate declined substantially in hospitals and remained stable in nursing homes, while admission prevalence was considerably higher in nursing homes than in hospitals.
MRSA, Transmission dynamic trends, Hospital, Nursing home, Veterans affairs
Variation and trends in transmission dynamics of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in veterans affairs hospitals and nursing homes
Karim Khader,a,b,* Alun Thomas,a,b Makoto Jones,a,b Damon Toth,a,b Vanessa Stevens,a,b Matthew H. Samore,a,b and CDC Modeling Infectious Diseases in Healthcare Program (MInD-Healthcare)
2020 Feb 7.
The family Stachybotriaceae was recently introduced to include the genera Myrothecium, Peethambara and Stachybotrys. Members of this family include important plant and human pathogens, as well as several species used in industrial and commercial applications as biodegraders and biocontrol agents. However, the generic boundaries in Stachybotriaceae are still poorly defined, as type material and sequence data are not readily available for taxonomic studies. To address this issue, we performed multi-locus phylogenetic analyses using partial gene sequences of the 28S large subunit (LSU), the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA (ITS), the RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (rpb2), calmodulin (cmdA), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) and β-tubulin (tub2) for all available type and authentic strains. Supported by morphological characters these data resolved 33 genera in the Stachybotriaceae. These included the nine already established genera Albosynnema, Alfaria, Didymostilbe, Myrothecium, Parasarcopodium, Peethambara, Septomyrothecium, Stachybotrys and Xepicula. At the same time the generic names Melanopsamma, Memnoniella and Virgatospora were resurrected. Phylogenetic inference further showed that both the genera Myrothecium and Stachybotrys are polyphyletic resulting in the introduction of 13 new genera with myrothecium-like morphology and eight new genera with stachybotrys-like morphology.
biodegraders, generic concept, human and plant pathogens, indoor mycobiota, multi-gene phylogeny, species concept, taxonomy
Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae
L. Lombard, 1 J. Houbraken, 1 C. Decock, 2 R.A. Samson, 1 M. Meijer, 1 M. Reblova, 3 J.Z. Groenewald, 1 and P.W. Crous 1 , 4 , 5 , 6
The study of selection signatures helps to find genomic regions that have been under selective pressure and might host genes or variants that modulate important phenotypes. Such knowledge improves our understanding of how breeding programmes have shaped the genomes of livestock. In this study, 942 stallions were included from four, exemplarily chosen, German warmblood breeds with divergent historical and recent selection focus and different crossbreeding policies: Trakehner (N = 44), Holsteiner (N = 358), Hanoverian (N = 319) and Oldenburger (N = 221). Those breeds are nowadays bred for athletic performance and aptitude for show-jumping, dressage or eventing, with a particular focus of Holsteiner on the first discipline. Blood samples were collected during the health exams of the stallion preselections before licensing and were genotyped with the Illumina EquineSNP50 BeadChip. Autosomal markers were used for a multi-method search for signals of positive selection. Analyses within and across breeds were conducted by using the integrated Haplotype Score (iHS), cross-population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (xpEHH) and Runs of Homozygosity (ROH). Oldenburger and Hanoverian showed very similar iHS signatures, but breed specificities were detected on multiple chromosomes with the xpEHH. The Trakehner clustered as a distinct group in a principal component analysis and also showed the highest number of ROHs, which reflects their historical bottleneck. Beside breed specific differences, we found shared selection signals in an across breed iHS analysis on chromosomes 1, 4 and 7. After investigation of these iHS signals and shared ROH for potential functional candidate genes and affected pathways including enrichment analyses, we suggest that genes affecting muscle functionality (TPM1, TMOD2-3, MYO5A, MYO5C), energy metabolism and growth (AEBP1, RALGAPA2, IGFBP1, IGFBP3-4), embryonic development (HOXB-complex) and fertility (THEGL, ZPBP1-2, TEX14, ZP1, SUN3 and CFAP61) have been targeted by selection in all breeds. Our findings also indicate selection pressure on KITLG, which is well-documented for influencing pigmentation.
Selection signatures in four German warmblood horse breeds: Tracing breeding history in the modern sport horse
Wietje Nolte, Georg Thaller, Christa Kuehn