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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:469-38-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Steroidal saponins, one of the most diverse groups of plant-derived natural products, elicit biological and pharmacological activities; however, the genes involved in their biosynthesis and the corresponding biosynthetic pathway in monocotyledon plants remain unclear. This study aimed to identify genes involved in the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins by performing a comparative analysis among transcriptomes of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis (PPC), Ypsilandra thibetica (YT), and Polygonatum kingianum (PK). De novo transcriptome assemblies generated 57,537, 140,420, and 151,773 unigenes from PPC, YT, and PK, respectively, of which 56.54, 47.81, and 44.30% were successfully annotated, respectively. Among the transcriptomes for PPC, YT, and PK, we identified 194, 169, and 131; 17, 14, and 26; and, 80, 122, and 113 unigenes corresponding to terpenoid backbone biosynthesis; sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis; and, steroid biosynthesis pathways, respectively. These genes are putatively involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol that is the primary precursor of steroidal saponins. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that lanosterol synthase may be exclusive to dicotyledon plant species, and the cytochrome P450 unigenes were closely related to clusters CYP90B1 and CYP734A1, which are UDP-glycosyltransferases unigenes homologous with the UGT73 family. Thus, unigenes of β-glucosidase may be candidate genes for catalysis of later period modifications of the steroidal saponin skeleton. Our data provide evidence to support the hypothesis that monocotyledons biosynthesize steroidal saponins from cholesterol via the cycloartenol pathway.
Biosynthesis; Cholesterol; Cycloartenol pathway; Monocotyledons; Steroidal saponins; Transcriptome.
Transcriptome analyses of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis, Ypsilandra thibetica, and Polygonatum kingianum characterize their steroidal saponin biosynthesis pathway
Zhenyan Yang 1, Lifang Yang 2, Changkun Liu 1, Xujie Qin 3, Haiyang Liu 3, Jiahui Chen 4, Yunheng Ji 5
The important role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the development of cancer has been demonstrated by various studies. Thus targeting HDACs with inhibitors is a major focus in anticancer drug research. Although few synthetic HDAC inhibitors (HDIs) have been approved for cancer treatment, they have significant undesirable side effects. Therefore emphases have been placed on natural HDIs as substitutes for the synthetic ones. In a bid to identify more HDIs, this study evaluated the binding tendency of compounds derived from Morinda lucida Benth. towards selected HDACs for the discovery of potent HDIs as potential candidates for anticancer therapeutics, based on the report of anticancer potentials of Morinda lucida-derived extracts and compounds. Givinostat and 49 Morinda-lucida derived compounds were docked against selected HDAC isoforms using AutodockVina, while binding interactions were viewed with Discovery Studio Visualizer, BIOVIA, 2016. Druglikeness and Absorption-Distribution-Metabolism-Excretion (ADME) parameters of the top 7 compounds were evaluated using the Swiss online ADME web tool. The results revealed that out of the 49 compounds, 3 phytosterols (campesterol, cycloartenol, and stigmasterol) and 2 triterpenes (oleanolic acid and ursolic acid) exhibited high HDAC inhibitory activity compared to givinostat. These 5 compounds also fulfill oral drugability of Lipinski rule of five. Morinda lucida-derived phytosterols and triterpenes show high binding tendency towards the selected HDACs and exhibited good drugability characteristics and are therefore good candidates for further studies in the search for therapies against abnormalities linked with over-activity of HDACs.
Anticancer; HDACs; Morinda lucida; Phytosterols; Triterpenes.
Phytosterols and triterpenes from Morinda lucida Benth. exhibit binding tendency against class I HDAC and HDAC7 isoforms
Ahmed Adebayo Ishola 1, Kayode Ezekiel Adewole 2
Purpose: Gliomas are destructive malignancies affecting mainly the central nervous system. Gliomas constitute around 50% of all the central nervous system tumors. The purpose of this study was to examine the anticancer activity of cycloartenol against the glioma U87 cells and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
Methods: MTT and colony formation assay were used to determine the proliferation rate. Acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) were used to determine apoptosis and cell cycle analysis was carried out by western blotting. Cell migration was checked by cell migration assay and immunoblotting was used for checking protein expressions.
Results: The results revealed that cycloartenol inhibited the proliferation and the colony formation potential of the glioma U87 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The antiproliferative effects were found to be due to induction of Sub-G1 cell cycle arrest and triggering of apoptosis. These effects were found to be dose-dependent. Cycloartenol also caused significant alteration in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2. Furthermore, cycloartenol inhibited the migration of glioma cells and suppressed the phosphorylation of the p38 MAP kinase.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that cycloartenol may prove beneficial in the treatment of glioma and warrants further investigation.
Cycloartenol exerts anti-proliferative effects on Glioma U87 cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and p38 MAPK-mediated apoptosis
Huanfu Niu 1, Xinming Li, Aijun Yang, Zhenzhen Jin, Xuenan Wang, Qin Wang, Chunna Yu, Zefeng Wei, Cuiyun Dou