Pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione, hexahydro-3-methyl-, (3S,8aS)-/(3S,8aS)-3-Methylhexahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
426.3±34.0 °C at 760 mmHg
178-181℃ (methanol )
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:36357-32-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Background: Atrazine is a triazine herbicide used widely in the United States. Although it is an animal carcinogen, the mechanism in rodents does not appear to operate in humans. Few epidemiologic studies have provided evidence for an association.
Methods: The Agricultural Health Study (AHS) is a prospective cohort that includes 57,310 licensed pesticide applicators. In this report, we extend a previous AHS analysis of cancer risk associated with self-reported atrazine use with six additional years of follow-up and more than twice as many cancer cases. Using Poisson regression, we calculated relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals for lifetime use of atrazine and intensity-weighted lifetime days, which accounts for factors that impact exposure.
Results: Overall, 36,357 (68%) of applicators reported using atrazine, among whom there were 3,146 cancer cases. There was no increase among atrazine users in overall cancer risk or at most cancer sites in the higher exposure categories compared with the lowest. Based on 29 exposed cases of thyroid cancer, there was a statistically significant risk in the second and fourth quartiles of intensity-weighted lifetime days. There was a similar pattern for lifetime days, but neither the risk estimates nor the trend were statistically significant and for neither metric was the trend monotonic.
Conclusions: Overall, there was no consistent evidence of an association between atrazine use and any cancer site. There was a suggestion of increased risk of thyroid cancer, but these results are based on relatively small numbers and minimal supporting evidence.
agriculture, atrazine, cancer, cohort study, epidemiology, pesticide
Atrazine and Cancer Incidence Among Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study (1994-2007)
Laura E. Beane Freeman,corresponding author1 Jennifer A. Rusiecki,2 Jane A. Hoppin,3 Jay H. Lubin,1 Stella Koutros,1 Gabriella Andreotti,1 Shelia Hoar Zahm,1 Cynthia J. Hines,4 Joseph B. Coble,1,* Francesco Barone-Adesi,1 Jennifer Sloan,1 Dale P. Sandler,3 Aaron Blair,1 and Michael C.R. Alavanja1
The thylacine is popularly used as a classic example of convergent evolution between placental and marsupial mammals. Despite having a fossil history spanning over 20 million years and known since the 1960s, the thylacine is often presented in both scientific literature and popular culture as an evolutionary singleton unique in its morphological and ecological adaptations within the Australian ecosystem. Here, we synthesise and critically evaluate the current state of published knowledge regarding the known fossil record of Thylacinidae prior to the appearance of the modern species. We also present phylogenetic analyses and body mass estimates of the thylacinids to reveal trends in the evolution of hypercarnivory and ecological shifts within the family. We find support that Mutpuracinus archibaldi occupies an uncertain position outside of Thylacinidae, and consider Nimbacinus richi to likely be synonymous with N. dicksoni. The Thylacinidae were small-bodied (< ~8 kg) unspecialised faunivores until after the ~15-14 Ma middle Miocene climatic transition (MMCT). After the MMCT they dramatically increase in size and develop adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet, potentially in response to the aridification of the Australian environment and the concomitant radiation of dasyurids. This fossil history of the thylacinids provides a foundation for understanding the ecology of the modern thylacine. It provides a framework for future studies of the evolution of hypercarnivory, cursoriality, morphological and ecological disparity, and convergence within mammalian carnivores.
Tasmanian tiger, Thylacinus cynocephalus, Marsupial, Hypercarnivory, Body mass, Parsimony, Phylogeny, Middle Miocene climatic transition
The pre-Pleistocene fossil thylacinids (Dasyuromorphia: Thylacinidae) and the evolutionary context of the modern thylacine
Douglass S. Rovinsky,corresponding author1 Alistair R. Evans,2,3 and Justin W. Adams1
Studies have explored the relationship between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD)] and colon cancer (CC). Additionally, racial disparities in the incidence of CC is well known. However, the impact of racial disparity in IBD patients who develop CC remains unclear. The aim of this study is to address the knowledge gap in this particular group of patients.
A retrospective analysis was done using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2011. We included patients with IBD over age ≥18 years with a diagnosis of CC. Patients were stratified by race, gender, age, presence of IBD and CC. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the groups.
A total of 57,542 patients were included (CD: 36,357, UC: 21,001). Of all patients with and without IBD, advanced age, Black and Asian race conferred an increased risk of developing CC, whereas female gender, Hispanic and Native American race conferred a protective effect. In patients with IBD, advanced age conferred an increased risk for developing CC while female gender conferred a protective effect. In this subset of patients, black race conferred a protective effect.
Racial disparity exists in the overall incidence of CC and among patients with IBD who develop CC. Interestingly, black race conferred a protective effect for patients with IBD, contrary to what is seen in the general population. These findings could be attributed to the environmental factors and genetic makeup between racial groups. Further studies are warranted to better understand these disparities.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), racial disparity, colon cancer (CC)
Racial disparities in the incidence of colon cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease
Priyanka Vij,1 Debbie Chen,1 Chiu-Hsieh Hsu,2 Viraj Pandit,1 Pamela Omesiete,1 Emad Elquza,1 Aaron Scott,1 Alejandro Cruz,1 and Valentine Nfonsamcorresponding author1