Fructus Alpinae Oxyphyllae; Cyperus rotundus L./Cyperus rotundus L.
Eudesma-4,11-dien-3-one/Eudesma-4,11-dien-3-on/2(3H)-Naphthalenone, 4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-, (4aS,7R)-/a-Cyperone/(4aS-cis)-4,4a,5,6,7,8-Hexahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-2(3H)-naphthalenone/(4aS,7R)-1,4a-Dimethyl-7-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydronaphthalen-2(3H)-one/2(3H)-Naphthalenone, 4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethenyl)-, (4aS-cis)-/Alpha-Cyperone/(4aS,7R)-7-Isopropenyl-1,4a-dimethyl-4,4a,5,6,7,8-hexahydro-2(3H)-naphthalenone/Cyperone, α-
Alpha-cyperone is associated with the down-regulation of COX-2,IL-6,Nck-2,Cdc42 and Rac1, resulting in reduction of inflammation. which would be highly beneficial for treatment of inflammatory diseases such as AD.In vitro: The anti-inflammatory activity of alpha-cyperone is associated with the down-regulation of COX-2 and IL-6 via the negative regulation of the NFκB pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.Alpha-Cyperone binds and interacts with tubulin and is capable of distinctly destabilizing microtubule polymerization. The effect of this interaction could result in reduction of inflammation which would be highly beneficial for treatment of inflammatory diseases such as AD. One microliter of alpha-Cyperone was dissolved in DMSO (1:1 v/v) and it was further diluted in double distilled water (ddH2O) to a final volume of 20 microliter. 
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Accumulating evidence has shown that activated microglia cause inflammatory immune response, which could lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. α-Cyperone, one of the main ingredients of Cyperus rotundus oil, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity in activated macrophages. In this study, we found that α-cyperone markedly decreased the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in LPS-induced BV-2 cells. Moreover, α-cyperone inhibited NF-κB activation and enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Akt expression. Furthermore, we found that α-cyperone could upregulate HO-1 expression and enhance nuclear translocation of Nrf2 via activating the Akt signaling pathway, and inhibition of Akt, Nrf2 or HO-1 attenuated LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines in BV-2 cells. Moreover, the toxicities of conditioned medium from activated microglia toward dopaminergic neuronal SH-SY5Y cells and hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with α-cyperone. Taken together, our results indicate that α-cyperone exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the production of inflammatory cytokines in BV-2 cells through activating Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 and suppressing the NF-κB pathway.
α-Cyperone Inhibits LPS-induced Inflammation in BV-2 Cells Through Activation of Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 and Suppression of the NF-κB Pathway
Bingxu Huang 1 , Dewei He, Guangxin Chen, Xin Ran, Wenjin Guo, Xingchi Kan, Wei Wang, Dianfeng Liu, Shoupeng Fu, Juxiong Liu
2018 May 23
α-Cyperone, a sesquiterpene compound represents 25.23% of the total oil and is the most abundant compound in Cyperus rotundus oil. Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) is a main member in protein C (PC) anti-coagulation system. EPCR could be shed from cell surface, and is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE). Nothing that EPCR is a marker of vascular barrier integrity in vascular inflammatory disease and takes part in systemic inflammatory disease. In this study, we investigated whether α-cyperone could inhibit EPCR shedding. To observe the effect, we investigated this issue by detection the effect of α-cyperone on phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced EPCR shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The cells were pretreated with α-cyperone for 12 h, and then stimulated by PMA for 1 h. The solute EPCR (sEPCR) and expression of membrane EPCR (mEPCR) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. The mRNA, protein level and activity of TACE were tested by quantitative (q)RT-PCR, Western blot and InnoZyme TACE activity assay kit. Furthermore, we measured the protein level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling and protein kinase C (PKC) pathway under this condition by Western blot. The results showed that α-cyperone could suppress PMA-induced EPCR shedding through inhibiting the expression and activity of TACE. In addition, α-cyperone could inhibit PKC translocation, but not have an effect on phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) 1/2. Given these results, α-cyperone inhibits PMA-induced EPCR shedding through PKC pathway, which will provide an experimental basis for further research on α-cyperone.
endothelial protein C receptor; protein kinase C pathway; shedding; α-cyperone.
α-Cyperone Inhibits PMA-Induced EPCR Shedding Through PKC Pathway
Yu Ma 1 , Yi Zhao 1 , Ran Zhang 1 , Xiaoxia Liang 1 , Zhongqiong Yin 1 , Yi Geng 2 , Gang Shu 2 , Xu Song 1 , Yuanfeng Zou 1 , Lixia Li 1 , Lizi Yin 1 , Guizhou Yue 3 , Yinglun Li 2 , Gang Ye 2 , Changliang He 1
2017 Oct 1
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), commonly known as purple nutsedge or nut grass is one of the most invasive and endemic weeds in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. This plant has been extensively used in traditional medicine for anti-arthritic, antidiarrheal and antiplatelet properties as well as treatment for several CNS disorders such as epilepsy, depression and inflammatory disorders. Inflammation is evidently occurring in pathologically susceptible regions of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain as well as other disorders. Many cellular processes are responsible in chronic inflammation. Microtubule-based inflammatory cell chemotaxis is a well-recognized process that influences production of cytokines and phagocytosis. The effect of α-Cyperone, one of main ingredients of Cyperus rotundus on microtubule assembly and dynamics has not been examined and is the purpose of this investigation.
Materials and methods: Microtubules and tubulin were extracted in order to explore their interaction with α-Cyperone by utilization of turbidimetric examinations, intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) studies. The molecular docking analysis was executed in order to facilitate a more detail and stronger evidence of this interaction. The BINding ANAlyzer (BINANA) algorithm was used to evaluate and further substantiate the binding site of α-Cyperone.
Results: It was demonstrated that α-Cyperone had a pronounced influence on the tubulin structure, decreased polymerization rate and reduced concentration of polymerized tubulin in vitro. The CD deconvolution analysis concluded that significant conformational changes occurred, demonstrated by a drastic increase in content of β-strands upon binding of α-Cyperone. The fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that a static type of quenching mechanism is responsible for binding of α-Cyperone to tubulin. Upon characterization of various biophysical parameters, it was further deduced that ligand binding was spontaneous and a single site of binding was confirmed. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that upon binding of α-Cyperone to microtubule the number and complexity of fibers were noticeably decreased. The computational analysis of docking suggested that α-Cyperone binds preferably to β-tubulin at a distinct location with close proximity to the GTP binding and hydrolysis site. The ligand interaction with β-tubulin is mostly hydrophobic and occurs at amino acid residues that are exclusively on random coil. The BINANA 1.2.0 algorithm which counts and tallies close molecular interaction by performing defined set of simulations revealed that amino acid residues Arg 48 and Val 62 have registered the highest scores and are possibly crucial in ligand-protein interaction.
Conclusion: α-Cyperone binds and interacts with tubulin and is capable of distinctly destabilizing microtubule polymerization. The effect of this interaction could result in reduction of inflammation which would be highly beneficial for treatment of inflammatory diseases such as AD.
Copyright ? 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
ATP (PubChem CID: 5957); GTP (PubChem CID: 6830); Microtubule polymerization; Molecular docking; Rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus; Tubulin; α-Cyperone; α-Cyperone (PubChem CID: 6452086).
α-Cyperone of Cyperus Rotundus Is an Effective Candidate for Reduction of Inflammation by Destabilization of Microtubule Fibers in Brain
Azam Azimi 1 , Seyed Mahmood Ghaffari 1 , Gholam Hossein Riazi 2 , Seyed Shahriar Arab 3 , Mohammad Mehdi Tavakol 4 , Shahriar Pooyan 1
2016 Dec 24