This product is isolated and purified from fungi
Glucopyranose, 2-amino-2-deoxy-, hydrochloride, D-/Glucosamine (hydrochloride)
Glucosamine (hydrochloride) is a natural product.IC50 value:Target:In vitro: Glucosamine hydrochloride exhibited dose-dependent DPPH antioxidant activity . Short-term (4 h) glucosamine hydrochloride treatment inhibited HIF-1α at the protein level, decreased phosphorylation of p70S6K and S6, translation-related proteins . In the obstructed kidneys and TGF-β1-treated renal cells, glucosamine hydrochloride significantly decreased renal expression of α-smooth muscle actin, collagen I, and fibronectin . In vivo:
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:66-84-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Glucosamine (CAS 66-84-2) hydrochloride is an amino monosaccharide indicated for the treatment of arthrosis, especially osteoarthritis of the knee joint. This study was conducted to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties, bioavailability of a newly developed dispersible tablet formulation (test) of glucosamine hydrochloride with those of an established branded capsule formulation (reference) in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.This single-dose, randomized, open-label, 2-period crossover study was conducted in 18 healthy Chinese adult male volunteers under fasting condition. Plasma samples were collected at pre-specified times over a 12-h period following administration in each period and analyzed the plasma glucosamine concentrations by Liquid Chromatography coupled with Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. The mean (SD) PK parameters of Cmax, Tmax, AUC0-12, and AUC0-∞ after administration of the test and reference formulations were, respectively, as follows: Cmax, 907.01 (444.22) vs. 944.40 (429.89) ng/mL, Tmax, 3.03 (0.95) vs. 3.30 (0.99) hours, AUC0-12, 2891.41 (1352.30) vs. 2889.69 (925.48) ng/mL/h, and AUC0-∞, 3029.90 (1321.36) vs. 3091.87 (870.36) ng/mL/h. The mean (SD) t1/2 was 1.10 (0.52) hours for the test formulation and 1.50 (1.17) hours for the reference formulation. On ANOVA, neither period nor sequence effects were observed for any PK properties. The relative bioavailability of the test formulation was 98.3% assessed by AUC0-12. The 90% CIs of glucosamine for the log-transformed ratios of Cmax, AUC0-12, and AUC0-∞ were 78.4-113.9%, 80.8-108.5% and 80.8-105.8%, respectively, meeting the predetermined criteria for bioequivalence of SFDA.
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Comparative fasting bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of 2 formulations of glucosamine hydrochloride in healthy Chinese adult male volunteers.
Wu H1, Liu M, Wang S, Zhao H, Yao W, Feng W, Yan M, Tang Y, Wei M.
A natural recombinant of coxsackievirus A2 was found in 4 children with respiratory symptoms in Hong Kong, China, during the summer of 2012. Two of these children died. Vigilant monitoring of this emerging recombinant enterovirus is needed to prevent its transmission to other regions.
coxsackievirus, coxsackievirus A2, viruses, recombination, recombinant virus, children, deaths, Hong Kong
Recombinant Coxsackievirus A2 and Deaths of Children, Hong Kong, 2012
Cyril C.Y. Yip, Susanna K.P. Lau, Patrick C.Y. Woo, Samson S.Y. Wong, Thomas H.F. Tsang, Janice Y.C. Lo, Wai-Kwok Lam, Chak-Chi Tsang, Kwok-Hung Chan, and Kwok-Yung Yuencorresponding author
In an effort to discover anaerobic bacteria capable of lignin degradation, we isolated “Enterobacter lignolyticus” SCF1 on minimal media with alkali lignin as the sole source of carbon. This organism was isolated anaerobically from tropical forest soils collected from the Short Cloud Forest site in the El Yunque National Forest in Puerto Rico, USA, part of the Luquillo Long-Term Ecological Research Station. At this site, the soils experience strong fluctuations in redox potential and are net methane producers. Because of its ability to grow on lignin anaerobically, we sequenced the genome. The genome of “E. lignolyticus” SCF1 is 4.81 Mbp with no detected plasmids, and includes a relatively small arsenal of lignocellulolytic carbohydrate active enzymes. Lignin degradation was observed in culture, and the genome revealed two putative laccases, a putative peroxidase, and a complete 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway encoded in a single gene cluster.
Anaerobic lignin degradation, tropical forest soil isolate, facultative anaerobe
Complete genome sequence of “Enterobacter lignolyticus” SCF1
Kristen M. DeAngelis,corresponding author1,2 Patrik D’Haeseleer,1,3 Dylan Chivian,4,5 Julian L. Fortney,1 Jane Khudyakov,2,3 Blake Simmons,2,6 Hannah Woo,1,2 Adam P. Arkin,4,5 Karen Walston Davenport,7 Lynne Goodwin,7 Amy Chen,8 Natalia Ivanova,8 Nikos C. Kyrpides,8 Konstantinos Mavromatis,8 Tanja Woyke,8 and Terry C. Hazen1,2
2011 Oct 15