Methyl [(2R,3aR,4aS,5R,5aS,9aR,10S,10aR)-2-(3-furyl)-5-hydroxy-1,6,9a,10a-tetramethyl-9-oxo-3,3a,4a,5,5a,8,9,9a,10,10a-decahydro-2H-cyclopenta[b]naphtho[2,3-d]furan-10-yl]acetate/2H-Cyclopenta[b]naphtho[2,3-d]furan-10-acetic acid, 2-(3-furanyl)-3,3a,4a,5,5a,8,9,9a,10,10a-decahydro-5-hydroxy-1,6,9a,10a-tetramethyl-9-oxo-, methyl ester, (2R,3aR,4aS,5R,5aS,9aR,10S,10aR)-
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566.3±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Introduction: Hepatic capillariosis, caused by Capillaria hepatica (Calodium hepaticum) (Bancroft, 1893), Travassos, 1915 (Nematoda, Trichinelloidea, Capillariidae), is a common zoonosis in rodents but is rare in humans. Seventy-two cases in humans have been reported worldwide since the first case was described by MACARTHUR in 192417,27. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Capillaria hepatica in humans and rodents in an urban area of Porto Velho, the capital of Rondônia, in Brazil.
Methods: After conducting a census of the area, 490 residents were randomly selected, and, after signing a term of consent, provided blood samples that were screened for anti-Capillaria hepatica antibodies. Simultaneously, rats were captured to assess the prevalence of this parasite in rodents by histopathological examination in liver sections.
Results: A prevalence of 1.8% was found among residents who had specific antibodies at a dilution of 1:150, indicating exposure to parasite eggs; 0.8% of the subjects also had positive titers at a dilution of 1:400, indicating true infection. The prevalence in rats was 2%.
Conclusions: The prevalence of infection with this parasite among humans and rats was low. While the prevalence encountered among humans was within the limits reported in the literature, the prevalence among rodents was much lower.
Capillariasis, Capillaria hepatica, Rondônia, Amazônia
STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF Capillaria hepatica IN HUMANS AND RODENTS IN AN URBAN AREA OF THE CITY OF PORTO VELHO, RONDÔNIA, BRAZIL
Elierson Jose Gomes da Rocha,(1) Sergio de Almeida Basano,(1) Marcia Maria de Souza,(2) Eduardo Resende Honda,(3) Marcio Botelho de Castro,(4) Edson Moleta Colodel,(5) Jessica Carolinne Damasceno e Silva,(1) Lauro Prado Barros,(1) Elisa Sousa Rodrigues,(1) and Luis Marcelo Aranha Camargo(6)
Until recently, Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787) was considered to represent a single tick species in the New World. Recent studies have split this taxon into six species. While the A. cajennense species complex or A. cajennense (sensu lato) (s.l.) is currently represented by two species in Brazil, A. cajennense (sensu stricto) (s.s.) and Amblyomma sculptum Berlese, 1888, their geographical distribution is poorly known.
The distribution of the A. cajennense (s.l.) in Brazil was determined by morphological examination of all lots of A. cajennense (s.l.) in two large tick collections of Brazil, and by collecting new material during three field expeditions in the possible transition areas between the distribution ranges of A. cajennense (s.s.) and A. sculptum. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the ITS2 rRNA gene was used to validate morphological results. Morphological description of the nymphal stage of A. cajennense (s.s.) is provided based on laboratory-reared specimens.
From the tick collections, a total 12,512 adult ticks were examined and identified as 312 A. cajennense (s.s.), 6,252 A. sculptum and 5,948 A. cajennense (s.l.). A total of 1,746 ticks from 77 localities were collected during field expeditions, and were identified as 249 A. cajennense (s.s.), 443 A. sculptum, and 1,054 A. cajennense (s.l.) [these A. cajennense (s.l.) ticks were considered to be males of either A. cajennense (s.s.) or A. sculptum]. At least 23 localities contained the presence of both A. cajennense (s.s.) and A. sculptum in sympatry. DNA sequences of the ITS2 gene of 50 ticks from 30 localities confirmed the results of the morphological analyses. The nymph of A. cajennense (s.s.) is morphologically very similar to A. sculptum.
Our results confirmed that A. cajennense (s.l.) is currently represented in Brazil by only two species, A. cajennense (s.s.) and A. sculptum. While these species have distinct distribution areas in the country, they are found in sympatry in some transition areas. The current distribution of A. cajennense (s.l.) has important implications to public health, since in Brazil A. sculptum is the most important vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Brazilian spotted fever.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1460-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma sculptum, Distribution, ITS2, Nymph
Geographical distribution of Amblyomma cajennense (sensu lato) ticks (Parasitiformes: Ixodidae) in Brazil, with description of the nymph of A. cajennense (sensu stricto)
Thiago F. Martins, Amalia R. M. Barbieri, Francisco B. Costa, Flavio A. Terassini, Luis M. A. Camargo, Cassio R. L. Peterka, Richard de C. Pacheco, Ricardo A. Dias, Pablo H. Nunes, Arlei Marcili, Alessandra Scofield, Artur K. Campos, Mauricio C. Horta, Aline G. A. Guilloux, Hector R. Benatti, Diego G. Ramirez, Darci M. Barros-Battesti, and Marcelo B. Labrunacorresponding author
While it is known that a variety of factors (biological, behavioural and interventional) play a major role in the health of individuals and populations, the importance of the role of social determinants is less clear. The effect of social inequality on population-based screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) could limit the value of such programmes. The present study aims to determine whether such inequalities exist.
Data was obtained from the population-based screening programme administered in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, Spain, with a target population aged 50 to 69, first invited to participate between 2009 and 2011. The magnitude of inequality was analysed using the odds ratio (taking the least disadvantaged socioeconomic quintile as the reference population), the population attributable risk and the relative index of inequality, based on the regression, which is the ratio of the rates in the most and least disadvantaged socioeconomic groups.
The target population comprised 242,394 people, with the test kit successfully sent to 95.1 % (230,510). The overall response rate was 64.3 % (67.1 in women and 61.4 % men).
Among women, the highest participation was in the third quintile (71.5 %) and the lowest in the first – the least disadvantaged (65.7 %). The lowest and highest rates of people with identified lesions were in the second and fourth quintiles (14.7/1000 and 17.0/1000 respectively).
Among men, the response rate was lowest in the fifth – most disadvantaged – quintile (60.2 %). The highest rate of identified lesions was in the fifth quintile; 38 % higher than the first (55.7/1000 compared to 41.0/1000).
Sex and socioeconomic group influence the rate of participation in the CRC programme and the rate of lesions found in the participants.
Any public health programme is morally and ethically obliged to strive for equity and effectiveness. Improving participation of men and socially disadvantaged groups should be taken in account.
Social inequalities, Colorectal cancer, Screening programme
Social inequalities in a population based colorectal cancer screening programme in the Basque Country
Jose Luis Hurtado, Amaia Bacigalupe, Montse Calvo, Santi Esnaola, Nere Mendizabal, Isabel Portillo, Isabel Idigoras, Eduardo Millan, and Eunate Arana-Arricorresponding author