HC 1528/Decoquinatum [INN-Latin]/Decoquinato [INN-Spanish]/Decoquinate/Decoxy/Ethyl 6-decyloxy-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-3-quinolinecarboxylate/Ethyl 6-(decyloxy)-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylate/6-decyloxy-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-quinoline-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester/Deccox/3-Quinolinecarboxylic acid (6-(decyloxy)-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxy/ethyl 6-n-decyloxy-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxyquinoline-3-Carboxylate/6-Decyloxy-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylic Acid Ethyl Ester/Ethyl 6-Decyloxy-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxyquinoline-3-carboxylate/6-decyloxy-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-3-quinoline-carboxylic acid ethyl ester/ethyl 6-decyloxy-7-ethoxy-4-hydroxy-3-quinolinate
517.9±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:18507-89-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Ovine Eimeria spp. infections cause increased mortality, reduced welfare and substantial economic losses, and anticocccidials are important for their control. Recent reports of anticoccidial resistance against ovine Eimeria spp. necessitate the development of in vitro methods for the detection of reduced anticoccidial efficacy, especially since the in vivo methods are both expensive, time consuming and requires the use of otherwise healthy animals. The aim of the present study was therefore to approach a preliminary standardization of in vitro assays for evaluation of the efficacy of the most commonly used anticoccidials in ruminants. For this purpose, apart from the evaluation of inhibition of oocyst sporulation, most effort was concentrated on assessment of the capacity of the different anticoccidials to inhibit both the invasion and further development (up to the first schizogony) of E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites in bovine colonic epithelial cells (BCEC). For this purpose, infected cultures were monitored 1, 8 and 15 days post infection to determine the infection rate, number of immature schizonts and number, size and appearance of mature schizonts, respectively. No clear inhibitory effect was found with any of the anticoccidial formulations tested, and we could not identify why there were no measurable effects from the different anticoccidials. Despite the lack of positive results, further investigations should be encouraged, as this could decrease the need for animal experiments and could be used in the initial assessment of anticoccidial efficacy of new drugs.
Anticoccidial resistance; Bovine colonic epithelial cells; Eimeria spp.; In vitro assay.
Preliminary Studies on in Vitro Methods for the Evaluation of Anticoccidial Efficacy/Resistance in Ruminants
Ane Odden 1, Snorre Stuen 2, Heidi L Enemark 3, Lucy J Robertson 4, Jose Manuel Molina 5, Antonio Ruiz 5
Purpose: The aim of this study was to formulate nano-emulsions comprising natural oils and the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) clofazimine (CLF), artemisone (ATM) and decoquinate (DQ) in order to determine effectiveness of the nano-emulsions for topical delivery of the APIs. The APIs alone do not possess suitable physicochemical properties for topical drug delivery.
Methods: Nano-emulsions were formulated with olive and safflower oils encapsulating the APIs. Skin diffusion and tape stripping studies were performed. By using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, in vitro toxicity studies were carried out on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell line to determine cytotoxicities due to the APIs and the nano-emulsions incorporating the APIs.
Results: The nano-emulsions were effective in delivering the APIs within the stratum corneum-epidermis and the epidermis-dermis, were non-cytotoxic towards HaCaT cell lines (p < 0.05) and inhibited Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro. Conclusion: Natural oil nano-emulsions successfully deliver CLF, ATM and DQ and in principle could be used as supplementary topical treatment of cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB). Graphical Abstract ᅟ
artemisone; clofazimine; cutaneous tuberculosis; decoquinate; nano-emulsions.
Formulation of Natural Oil Nano-Emulsions for the Topical Delivery of Clofazimine, Artemisone and Decoquinate
Cornel Burger 1, Marique Aucamp 1, Jan du Preez 1, Richard K Haynes 1, Andile Ngwane 2, Jeanetta du Plessis 1, Minja Gerber 3
2018 Aug 7
The aim of this study was to develop and validate a novel HPLC method for the simultaneous analysis of artemisone, clofazimine and decoquinate. Detection was obtained at two wavelengths; 284 nm (clofazimine) and 210 nm (artemisone and decoquinate). Gradient elution was used with mobile phase A (A) consisting of 0.005 M sodium octanesulphonic-acid (pH 3.5) and mobile phase B (B) of HPLC grade acetonitrile. The flow rate was set to 1.0 ml/min with (A) at 35% and (B) at 65% for 2 min, followed by a gradient shift of 10/90% ((A)/(B)) over a duration of 4 min. After 10 min, the initial gradient conditions were readjusted to 35/65% ((A)/(B)). Distinctive peaks were identified for clofazimine, artemisone and decoquinate, respectively. The proposed HPLC assay method was validated and found to be reliable, reproducible and accurate for simultaneous analysis of the three compounds.
Development and Validation of the Simultaneous Determination of Artemisone, Clofazimine and Decoquinate With HPLC
J L du Preez, M E Aucamp, C Burger, M Gerber, J M Viljoen, L van Zyl, J du Plessis
2018 Mar 5