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SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has become a global issue which has raised the concern of scientific community to design and discover a counter-measure against this deadly virus. So far, the pandemic has caused the death of hundreds of thousands of people upon infection and spreading. To date, no effective vaccine is available which can combat the infection caused by this virus. Therefore, this study was conducted to design possible epitope-based subunit vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus using the approaches of reverse vaccinology and immunoinformatics. Upon continual computational experimentation, three possible vaccine constructs were designed and one vaccine construct was selected as the best vaccine based on molecular docking study which is supposed to effectively act against the SARS-CoV-2. Thereafter, the molecular dynamics simulation and in silico codon adaptation experiments were carried out in order to check biological stability and find effective mass production strategy of the selected vaccine. This study should contribute to uphold the present efforts of the researches to secure a definitive preventative measure against this lethal disease
COVID-19, Coronavirus, SARS-COV-2, Reverse vaccinology, Vaccine, Immunoinformatics
Immunoinformatics-guided designing of epitope-based subunit vaccines against the SARS Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)
Bishajit Sarkar,a,* Md. Asad Ullah,a Fatema Tuz Johora,a Masuma Afrin Taniya,b and Yusha Arafc
Despite the significant investments to control malaria infection rates over the past years, infection rates remain significant in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigates the association with use of large-scale malaria interventions such as: Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), Insecticide Treated bed-Nets (ITN), and Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) strategies, and the prevalence of malaria among children under-five in Ghana.
Cross-sectional data on 2, 449 children aged 6 to 59 months who were tested for malaria, through Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT), are drawn from the recent wave of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS 2014). We use a logit model to analyse the heterogeneous association between control measures and malaria infection among under five children of different age cohorts and household poverty statuses.
Our estimates suggest that IRS offers much more protection than ITN use. The odds of malaria infection among children who sleep in IRS is significantly lower (odds ratio [OR] = 0.312; 95% CI -1.47 -0.81; p = 0.00) compared to those who are not protected. This association is even high (odds ratio [OR] = 0.372; 95% CI -1.76 -1.02; p = 0.00) among children in poor households protected by IRS compared to those who have no IRS protection. ITN use did not have a significant association with malaria infection among children, except among children whose mothers have at least secondary education. For such children, the odds of malaria infection are significantly lower ([OR] =0.545; 95% CI = − 0.84 -0.11; p = 0.011) compared to those who are not protected. Regarding BCC strategies, we found that malaria education through television is the best strategy to covey malaria education as it significantly reduces the odds of malaria infection ([OR] =0.715; 95% CI = − 0.55 -0.10; p = 0.005) compared to those who do not received malaria education via television. BCC strategy via print media has a significant but limited protection for children of educated mothers.
Policy makers should direct more resources to IRS, especially in communities where the use of ITN is less likely to be effective, such as poor and rural households. The distribution of ITNs needs to be accompanied with education programs to ensure its best protection.
IRS, ITN use, Malaria infection, Children under-five, Sub-Saharan Africa
Malaria infection among children under-five: the use of large-scale interventions in Ghana
Clifford Afoakwah,corresponding author Xin Deng, and Ilke Onur
To describe suicide rates in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO) in 2002-2012, as well as associated socio-demographic characteristics.
Retrospective population-based mortality study.
Data from autopsy reports were used to identify 252 cases of suicide in the NAO in 2002-2012. Data on socio-demographic characteristics of these cases were obtained from passports and medical records at local primary health care units, and were then linked to total population data from the Censuses in 2002 and 2010. Suicide rates for the indigenous Nenets population and the non-indigenous population were standardized to the European standard population. The rates were also estimated according to different socio-demographic characteristics and compared by calculating relative risks.
The crude suicide rates were 79.8 per 100,000 person-years (PYs) in the Nenets population and 49.2 per 100,000 PYs in the non-indigenous population. The corresponding standardized estimates were 72.7 per 100,000 PYs and 50.7 per 100,000 PYs. The highest suicide rates in the Nenets population were observed in the age group 20-29 years (391 per 100,000 PYs), and in females aged 30-39 years (191 per 100,000 PYs). Socio-demographic characteristics associated with high suicide rates in the Nenets population were age 20-39 years, male, urban residence, having secondary school or higher education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced. Males aged 20-29 years, and females aged 30-39 and aged 70 years and above had the highest suicide rates in the non-indigenous population (137.5, 21.6 and 29.9 per 100,000 PYs, respectively). The elevated suicide rates observed in the non-indigenous population were associated with male sex, rural residence, secondary school education, being an employee or employer, and being single or divorced.
Suicide rates in the NAO were substantially higher among the indigenous Nenets population than the non-indigenous population, and were associated with different socio-demographic characteristics.
suicide rates, relative risks, person-years, indigenous Nenets
Suicides in the indigenous and non-indigenous populations in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Northwestern Russia, and associated socio-demographic characteristics
Yury A. Sumarokov,1,2,* Tormod Brenn,1 Alexander V. Kudryavtsev,1,2 and Odd Nilssen1