This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Derris trifoliata Lour.
6-Hydroxy-9,10-dimethoxy-3,3-dimethyl-3H-chromeno[3,4-b]pyrano[2,3-h]chromen-7(13H)-one/11-hydroxy-6a,12adehydrodeguelin/3H-benzopyrano[3,4-b]pyrano[2,3-h]benzopyran-7(13H)-one, 6-hydroxy-9,10-dimethoxy-3,3-dimethyl-/7a,13a-Didehydrotoxicarol/3H-Benzopyrano[4',3':5,6]pyrano[2,3-f]benzopyran-7(13H)-one, 6-hydroxy-9,10-dimethoxy-3,3-dimethyl-
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
626.5±55.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Oestrosis, caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis, commonly known as sheep nose bot, is an obligatory cavitary myiasis of sheep and goats. Oestrus ovis is a widespread parasite, but little is known about the prevalence of oestrosis at the global and broad geographical levels. The present study aimed to explore the epidemiology of oestrosis at the global and regional level to estimate prevalences and their associated factors using a systematic approach. This is, to the author’s knowledge, the first meta-analysis of oestrosis in sheep and goats.
Published articles were obtained from nine electronic databases (PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Web of Science, Scopus, UCB library, Medline, Biosis Citation Index, Indian journals and Google Scholar) reporting the prevalence of O. ovis in sheep and goats from 1970 to 2018. Pooled prevalences were estimated using a random effect meta-analysis model.
Sixty-six studies were eligible, and data from 40,870 sheep and 18,216 goats were used for quantitative analysis. The random effect estimated prevalence of oestrosis at the global level in sheep was 51.15% (95% CI: 42.80-59.51%) and in goats was 42.19% (95% CI: 33.43-50.95%). The pooled prevalence estimates for Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas were 47.85% (95% CI: 36.04-59.66%), 44.48% (95% CI: 33.09-55.87%), 56.83% (95% CI: 48.92-64.74%) and 34.46% (95% CI: 19.90-49.01%), respectively. Heterogeneity (I2 > 80%) was detected in most pooled estimates.
Oestrosis is highly prevalent in many geographical regions of the world, especially in Europe and Africa. Factors that contribute to the pooled prevalence estimate of oestrosis need to be emphasised in any survey to estimate the true prevalence of oestrosis. Furthermore, there is a need for immunisation or implementation of other preventive measures to reduce the burden of oestrosis in sheep and goats and to improve the health and welfare status.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s13071-019-3597-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Epidemiology, Prevalence, Sheep bot fly, Nasal myiasis, Meta-analysis
The global and regional prevalence of oestrosis in sheep and goats: a systematic review of articles and meta-analysis
Md Ahaduzzamancorresponding author
Women’s empowerment has a direct impact on maternal and child health care service utilization. Large scope measurement of contraceptive use in several dimensions is paramount, considering the nature of empowerment processes as it relates to improvements in maternal health status. However, multicountry and multilevel analysis of the measurement of women’s empowerment indicators and their associations with contraceptive use is vital to make a substantial intervention in the Sub-Saharan Africa context. Therefore, we investigated the impact of women’s empowerment on contraceptive use among women in sub-Saharan Africa countries.
Secondary data involving 474,622 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) from the current Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) in 32 Sub-Saharan Africa region was used in this study. Contraceptive use was the primary outcome variable. Multilevel analysis was conducted to examine the impact of women’s empowerment on contraceptive use. Percentages were conducted in univariate analysis. Furthermore, multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between individual, compositional and contextual factors of contraceptive use.
Results showed large disparities in the number of women who reportedly ever use contraceptive methods; this range from as low as 6.7% in Chad and as much as 72% in Namibia. More than one-third of the respondents had no formal education and more than half were active labor force. Contraceptive use was significantly more common among respondents from the richest households (28.5% versus 18.9%). Various components of women’s empowerment were positively significantly associated with contraceptive use after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors. There was a significant variation in the odds of contraceptive use across the 32 countries (σ2= 1.12, 95% CrI 0.67 to 1.87) and across the neighbourhoods (σ2= 0.95, 95% CrI 0.92 to 0.98).
Our findings suggest that an increase in contraceptive use and by better extension maternal health care services utilization can be achieved by enhancing women’s empowerment. Also, an increase in decision-making autonomy by women, their participation in labour force, reduction in abuse and violence and improved knowledge level are all key issues to be considered. Health-related policies should address inequalities in women’s empowerment, education and economic status which would yield benefits to individuals, families, and societies in general.
Women’s empowerment, Gender equality, Decision making, Sub-Saharan Africa, Antenatal care, Maternal health
Women empowerment as an enabling factor of contraceptive use in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of cross-sectional surveys of 32 countries
Sanni Yaya,corresponding author1 Olalekan A. Uthman,2 Michael Ekholuenetale,3 and Ghose Bishwajit1
Thyroid hormone (T3) dyshomeostasis in the cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) setting negatively impacts on mitochondria function and extracellular matrix remodeling. The modulation of cardiac miRNAs may represent the underlying molecular mechanisms, but a systems biology perspective investigating this critical issue in depth is still lacking. A rat model of myocardial IR, with or without an early short-term T3-replacement, was used to predict putative T3-dependent miRNA-gene interactions targeted to mitochondria quality control and wound healing repair. As evidenced by mRNA and miRNA expression profiling, the T3 supplementation reverted the expression of 87 genes and 11 miRNAs that were dysregulated in the untreated group. In silico crossing and functional analysis of the T3-associated differentially expressed transcripts, identified a signature of interconnected miRNA-gene regulatory circuits that confer resistance to noxious cascades of acute stress. In this network the T3-down-regulated Tp53, Jun and Sp1 transcription factors emerge as critical nodes linking intrinsic cell death and oxidative stress pathways to adverse remodeling cascades. The data presented here provide a novel insight into the molecular basis of T3 cardioprotection in the early post-IR phase and highlight the contribution of a previously unappreciated complex T3-regulatory network that may be helpful in translating T3 replacement into clinical practice
Integrative analysis of differentially expressed genes and miRNAs predicts complex T3-mediated protective circuits in a rat model of cardiac ischemia reperfusion
Francesca Forini,corresponding author1 Giuseppina Nicolini,1 Claudia Kusmic,1 Romina D’Aurizio,2 Milena Rizzo,1 Mario Baumgart,3 Marco Groth,3 Stefano Doccini,4 Giorgio Iervasi,1 and Letizia Pitto1