fruits of Vaccinium myrtillus
1.3946 (rough estimate)
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
454.94°C (rough estimate)
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:528-53-0) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Flavonoids are valuable natural products widely used in human health and nutrition applications. Engineering microbial consortia to express complex flavonoid biosynthetic pathways is a promising approach for flavonoid production. In this study, the entire flavonoid biosynthetic pathway was split into two independent pathways, each of which was contained in separate Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The first cell type, sNAR5, which was genetically engineered to express the naringenin biosynthetic pathway, produced 144.1 mg/L naringenin. The second cell type was genetically modified with the heterologous naringenin-to-delphinidin pathway. A coculture produced a delphinidin titer, significantly higher than that produced in a monoculture of strain sDPD2, harboring the entire pathway. Furthermore, we successfully employed this coculture platform for the production of 3 flavonols and 2 anthocyanidins in flask-scale culture. This coculture platform paves the way for the development of an economical and efficient process for microbial flavonoid production.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae; flavonoid; metabolic engineering; microbial coculture; naringenin.
Engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae Coculture Platform for the Production of Flavonoids
Yun Du 1, Binrui Yang 1, Zhiqiang Yi 1, Lanlan Hu 1, Mu Li 1
2020 Feb 19;
Hyperglycemia, a diagnostic characteristic of diabetes mellitus, is detrimental to pancreatic β cells. Delphinidin, a member of the anthocyanin family, inhibits glucose absorption, increases glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, and improves insulin secretion in diabetes. However, whether delphinidin plays a protective role in pancreatic β-cell mass and function is not clear. In this study, delphinidin was found to decrease the high-glucose-induced apoptosis of RIN-m5F pancreatic β cells. In addition, delphinidin induced autophagy in RIN-m5F cells under the normal and high-glucose conditions, while 3-methyladenine (3-MA) inhibition of autophagy significantly diminished the protective role of delphinidin against high-glucose-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. Delphinidin also decreased the level of cleaved caspase 3 and increased the phosphorylation level of AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) Thr172. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, was found to decrease the ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I, and the apoptotic rate of high-glucose-injured cells was increased after treatment with delphinidin, indicating that delphinidin attenuated the negative effects of high-glucose stress to cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that delphinidin protects pancreatic β cells against high-glucose-induced injury by autophagy regulation via the AMPK signaling pathway. These findings might shed light on the underlying mechanisms of diabetes and help improve the prevention and therapy of this common disease.
apoptosis; autophagy; delphinidin; high glucose; pancreatic β cells.
Delphinidin-induced autophagy protects pancreatic β cells against apoptosis resulting from high-glucose stress via AMPK signaling pathway
Dengni Lai 1, Mingyong Huang 2, Lingyan Zhao 1, Yan Tian 1, Yong Li 1, Dongpo Liu 3, Yanyang Wu 1, Fangming Deng 1
2019 Dec 13;
Background: Greater proportions of purple tea buds and leaves usually appear in the summer, which seriously affects the color and taste quality of green tea products, yet the metabolism of purple tea shoots in summer remains unclear. Here, the metabolomic profiles and gene expression of related flavonoid metabolic pathways in the purple and normal green shoots of ‘Longjing 43’, and the quality of green tea made with these two phenotypes, were analyzed and compared.
Results: Differential metabolites identified using high-performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap/mass spectrometry indicated that anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple leaves was enriched, with higher levels of anthocyanidins (delphinidin-hexose-coumaroyl showed the greatest increase), proanthocyanidins (oligomers of catechins) and kaempferol glycoside. Expression patterns of the genes ANR, ANS, FLS, LAR, C4H, PAL, CHI, CHS and DFR revealed that the metabolism of anthocyanin is positively regulated by high temperature and/or light levels in summer. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry results showed that, in purple tea shoots, the metabolism of carbohydrates was enriched whereas that of amino acids was diminished, while their mannose, fructose, d-galactose, sorbose and d-glucose contents were more than double those found in green leaves. A sensory evaluation confirmed that a greater quantity of purple shoots had a greater negative impact on green tea quality because of a bitter taste and dark color (leaves and infusions were tested).
Conclusions: These results highlight the need for and possibility of improving commercial tea quality via cultivation that controls the temperature or light of tea gardens during the summer. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
Camellia sinensis; anthocyanin; metabolism; purple tea shoots; summer.
Stimulated biosynthesis of delphinidin-related anthocyanins in tea shoots reducing the quality of green tea in summer
Qunfeng Zhang 1, Jianhui Hu 2, Meiya Liu 1, Yuanzhi Shi 1, Ric C H De Vos 3, Jianyun Ruan 1
2020 Mar 15