Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
529.7±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading global cause of mortality indicating the need to identify all possible factors reducing primary and secondary risk. This study screened the in vitro antiplatelet and anticoagulant activities of hot water extracts of eight edible mushroom species (Agaricus bisporus, Auricularia auricularia-judae, Coprinus comatus, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, and Pleurotus ostreatus) increasingly cultivated for human consumption, and compared them to those evoked by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). The antioxidant capacity and concentration of polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, organic acids, ergosterol, macro elements, and trace elements were also characterized. The most promising antiplatelet effect was exhibited by A. auricularia-judae and P. eryngii extracts as demonstrated by the highest rate of inhibition of adenosine-5′-diphosphate (ADP)-induced and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation. The response to both extracts exceeded the one evoked by 140 µmol/L of ASA in the ADP test and was comparable to it in the case of the AA test. Such a dual effect was also observed for G. lucidum extract, even though it was proven to be cytotoxic in platelets and leukocytes. The extract of P. ostreatus revealed an additive effect on AA-induced platelet aggregation. None of the mushroom extracts altered the monitored coagulation parameters (prothrombin time, prothrombin ratio, and International Normalized Ratio). The effect of mushroom extracts on platelet function was positively related to their antioxidative properties and concentration of polysaccharides and ergosterol, and inversely related to zinc concentration. The study suggests that selected mushrooms may exert favorable antiplatelet effects, highlighting the need for further experimental and clinical research in this regard.
mushrooms, platelet, natural antiplatelet agents, thrombosis, cardiovascular disease
The Effect of Mushroom Extracts on Human Platelet and Blood Coagulation: In vitro Screening of Eight Edible Species
Barbara Poniedziałek,1,* Marek Siwulski,2 Adrian Wiater,3 Iwona Komaniecka,4 Anna Komosa,5 Monika Gasecka,6 Zuzanna Magdziak,6 Mirosław Mleczek,6 Przemysław Niedzielski,7 Jędrzej Proch,7 Mariola Ropacka-Lesiak,8 Maciej Lesiak,5 Eliana Henao,9 and Piotr Rzymski1,*
Plasma antioxidant vitamins (retinol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene) were measured to establish the influence of clinical condition and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) treatment on the nutritional status of renal transplant recipients.
Material and methods
In 106 adult patients plasma vitamins were measured and 24-h diet history questionnaires were conducted. The MMF influence on plasma vitamins was verified in 61 patients.
The current dietary intakes of vitamins in daily food rations were lower than recommended. Plasma retinol was lower in patients suffering from gastrointestinal disorders (1.25 ±0.48 mg/l vs. 1.55 ±0.70 mg/l) and inversely associated with aminotransferases activity (p = 0.019) and creatinine clearance (p = 0.021). Retinol concentrations were positively associated with plasma creatinine (p = 0.027) and pharmacokinetic parameters of MMF phenyl glucuronide. β-Carotene concentrations were higher in women (0.39 ±0.46 mg/l vs. 0.28 ±0.23 mg/l; p = 0.041) and when MMF was co-administered with cyclosporine vs. tacrolimus (0.45 ±0.62 mg/l vs. 0.25 ±0.19 mg/l). Plasma α-tocopherol correlated negatively with the mycophenolic acid pre-dose concentration (p = 0.027) and was significantly lower in patients treated with calcineurin inhibitors (8.90 ±5.23 mg/l vs. 12.25 ±5.62 mg/l). A positive correlation was observed between α-tocopherol levels and aspartate aminotransferase (p = 0.006). In multivariate regression aspartate aminotransferase and MMF treatment significantly influenced retinol (p < 0.001). Conclusions The MMF treatment was associated with significantly lower retinol concentrations. The gastrointestinal disorders occurrence in MMF-treated patients may cause a decrease in retinol absorption. Diet adjustment and/or vitamin A supplementation should be considered.
antioxidant vitamins, clinical condition, mycophenolate mofetil, renal transplantation, nutritional status
Effect of clinical condition and mycophenolate mofetil on plasma retinol, α-tocopherol and β-carotene in renal transplant recipients
Jolanta Kamińnska,1 Joanna Sobiak,1 Maciej Głyda,2 Grażyna Duda,3 Małgorzata Nogala-Kałucka,4 Aleksander Siger,4 and Maria Chrzanowskacorresponding author1
2012 May 9
This cross-sectional online survey of Polish students (n = 6463) assessed the frequency and patterns of pornography consumption, its self-perceived effects, the prevalence of self-perceived pornography addiction, and opinions on the potential effects of pornography and its legal status. Nearly 80% of students have been exposed to pornography (median age of first exposure: 14 years). Streaming videos were decidedly the most frequent form of use. In the subset of current users (n = 4260), daily use and self-perceived addiction was reported by 10.7% and 15.5%, respectively. The majority of those surveyed did not report any negative effects of pornography use on their sexual function, sexual, and relationship satisfaction. Instead, over one-quarter of students in relationships reported beneficial effects on its quality. The most common self-perceived adverse effects of pornography use included: the need for longer stimulation (12.0%) and more sexual stimuli (17.6%) to reach orgasm, and a decrease in sexual satisfaction (24.5%). Females and males with a Body Mass Index >25 kg/m2 more often reported a self-perceived decrease in relationship quality associated with pornography use. Age of first exposure was significantly associated with reported need for longer stimulation and more sexual stimuli to reach orgasm when using pornography, decrease in sexual satisfaction, and quality of romantic relationship, neglect of basic needs and duties due to pornography use, and self-perceived addiction in both females and males. The highest odds ratios were always observed for age <12 years in reference to exposure at >16 years. In the opinion of most of the surveyed students, pornography may have adverse effects on human health, although access restrictions should not be implemented. The study gives a broad insight into the pornography consumption in young Polish adults.
pornography, cross-sectional study, university students, self-perceived effects, questionnaire survey
Prevalence, Patterns and Self-Perceived Effects of Pornography Consumption in Polish University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study
Aleksandra Diana Dwulit and Piotr Rzymski*