White or Light Yellow crystalline powder
Deoxyelephantopin/(3S,4R,8R,9Z,12R)-10-Methyl-5-methylene-6,14-dioxo-7,13-dioxatricyclo[10.2.1.0]pentadeca-1(15),9-dien-3-yl methacrylate/2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, (3aR,4S,9R,11Z,12aR)-2,3,3a,4,5,9,10,12a-octahydro-11-methyl-3-methylene-2,7-dioxo-7H-9,6-methenofuro[2,3-f]oxacycloundecin-4-yl ester/Isodeoxyelephantopin
Methanol; Acetontrile; DMSO
584.3±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:29307-03-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Materials with high volume magnetization are perpetually needed for the generation of sufficiently large magnetic fields by writer pole of magnetic hard disks, especially for achieving increased areal density in storage media. In search of suitable materials combinations for this purpose, we have employed density functional theory to predict the magnetic coupling between iron and gadolinium layers separated by one to several monolayers of 3d transition metals (Sc-Zn). We demonstrate that it is possible to find ferromagnetic coupling for many of them and in particular for the early transition metals giving rise to high moment. Cr and Mn are the only elements able to produce a significant ferromagnetic coupling for thicker spacer layers. We also present experimental results on two trilayer systems Fe/Sc/Gd and Fe/Mn/Gd. From the experiments, we confirm a ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd across a 3 monolayers Sc spacer or a Mn spacer thicker than 1 monolayer. In addition, we observe a peculiar dependence of Fe/Gd magnetic coupling on the Mn spacer thickness.
High magnetic moment materials are used in several technological applications such as write heads in hard disks, generators, transformers, electrical vehicles and wind turbines1. Many different ferromagnetic materials with different characteristic features were created but the largest room temperature saturation magnetization (MS) remains unbeaten by the Slater-Pauling maximum (SPM) of the FeCo magnetization curve2,3. The Slater-Pauling curve is the plot of the magnetic moments versus doping in FeCo alloy and it reaches its maximum value μ0MS = 2.45 T for Fe65Co35 composition. Other materials were proposed to exceed the Slater-Pauling limit but no definitive conclusion was made about reaching a saturation moment at room temperature larger than the SPM4.
The ferromagnetic 4f rare earth metals like Gd exhibit, far below their Curie temperatures, higher volume magnetization than the limit set by SPM. However, we need to increase the low Curie temperature of these materials to make them usable for room temperature applications. In the past, multilayers composed of Fe and Gd have been studied but it is well known that magnetic 3d elements couple antiferromagnetically to 4f elements resulting in a reduced magnetic moment of the heterostructures. The interface between different materials offers the chance to manipulate the interplay between magnetic, orbital, electronic and lattice degrees of freedom giving rise to behavior that can differ from that of the bulk. In order to realize a material with a combination of both high spin magnetic moment and high Curie temperature, heterostructures of rare-earth-metal (e.g., Gd) and Fe with a high Curie temperature5 intermediated by a single Cr layer was proposed theoretically and a proof of principle experimental verification was also presented. However, it was also shown in the same work that only a few of Gd layers get coupled to the underlying Fe. In this work we extend that study by considering the whole series of 3d transition metals ranging from Sc to Zn. For this purpose we use the Fe/X/Gd heterostructure with X 3d transition metal as spacer between Fe and Gd. Fe and Gd will still be considered due to their high Curie temperature and high magnetic moment respectively. Adopting the same geometrical mode as reported in ref. 5, we will demonstrate that it is possible to create heterostructures with ferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd via other 3d transition metal spacers too. A very large energy difference between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic configuration is a clear indication that this coupling can persist also at high temperature. It is important to note that the overcoming of the SPM by Fe/X/Gd heterostructures proposed here is by the way of enhancing the magnetic ordering temperature of Gd and is not due to the enhancement of the moments of either Fe or Gd.
Among the 3d transition metals Fe, Co and Ni are ferromagnetic (FM) while Cr and Mn are antiferromagnetic (AFM) in their bulk form. The rest of the transition metals that we study as spacer layers are non-magnetic. At the interface between FM and non-magnetic (NM) materials, two phenomena are observed from magnetic point of view. One is the reduction of the local magnetic moment at the interface of the FM phase5,6 and the other is the induced magnetic moment in the NM interface layer. The induced magnetic moment can be parallel or anti-parallel to the magnetic moment of the FM phase depending on the charge transfer7. In case of one monolayer spacer, Ni and Co layers couple ferromagnetically to the Fe layer but antiferromagnetically to the Gd layer, while Cr and Mn couple antiferromagnetically to both the Fe and Gd layers. For the AFM spacer layers, with increasing the number of layers, an oscillating behavior of the magnetic coupling was found while the situation does not change for Ni and Co interlayers. For the NM interlayer an oscillating behaviour was found too increasing the number of interlayer, the oscillatory nature is consistent with the predictions of Ruderman, Kittel, Kasuya and Yosida (RKKY) theory8,9,10 but the strength of the interaction decays quite rapidly after few monolayers. While the RKKY oscillation is a long range phenomenon, the oscillation found in these heterostructures are short range.
The theoretical predictions are compared to experimental magnetic configurations in two trilayer systems; one with a non-magnetic Sc spacer and the other with magnetic Mn spacer. Macroscopic magnetic data confirms the breaking of antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe and Gd on insertion of Sc or Mn spacer in between. It is also observed that the magnetic coupling between Fe and Gd persists to thicker Mn spacer layer while the coupling is diminished for a Sc spacer above 3 monolayers (ML) thick.
Recipe for High Moment Materials with Rare-earth and 3d Transition Metal Composites
Carmine Autieri,a,1 P. Anil Kumar,2 Dirk Walecki,2 Samira Webers,2 Mark A. Gubbins,3 Heiko Wende,2 and Biplab Sanyal1
Recent studies have observed a high level of circulating interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients with digestive cancers, yet whether elevated IL-10 is causally associated with digestive cancers so far remained unresolved.
We therefore meta-analyzed available observational studies with Mendelian randomization method to explore this causal association by employing IL-10 gene 3 variants (-592C>A, -819C>T, and -1082A>G) as instruments.
Data were available from 52 articles encompassing 29,307 subjects. Subgroup analysis by cancer type indicated that -1082A>G was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.35; P = 0.006), and the association was reinforced for intestinal type gastric cancer (OR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.09-1.44; P = 0.001). By ethnicity, risk estimate for -1082G allele carriers was increased by 21% for digestive cancers in East Asians (95%CI: 1.05-1.40; P = 0.009). As for the genotype-phenotype association, carriers of -1082G allele had an overall 20.21 pg/mL higher IL-10 level than those with -1082AA genotype (P = 0.023). In further Mendelian randomization analysis, the predicted OR for 10 pg/mL increment in IL-10 was 1.14 (95%CI: 1.01-16.99) in gastric cancer.
Our findings provided evidence for a causal role of genetically elevated IL-10 in the development of gastric cancer, especially in East Asians and for intestinal type gastric cancer.
A Causal Role of Genetically Elevated Circulating Interleukin-10 in the Development of Digestive Cancers
Wenquan Niu, PhD, Qing Pang, MD, Ting Lin, MD, Zhixin Wang, MD, Jingyao Zhang, MD, Minghui Tai, MD, Lingqiang Zhang, PhD, Li Zhang, MD, PhD, Mingliang Gu, PhD, Chang Liu, MD, PhD, and Kai Qu, MD
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes associated with complex human diseases. Although much of the heritability remains unexplained, combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes from multiple studies for meta-analysis will increase the statistical power to identify new disease-associated variants. Meta-analysis requires same allele definition (nomenclature) and genome build among individual studies. Similarly, imputation, commonly-used prior to meta-analysis, requires the same consistency. However, the genotypes from various GWAS are generated using different genotyping platforms, arrays or SNP-calling approaches, resulting in use of different genome builds and allele definitions. Incorrect assumptions of identical allele definition among combined GWAS lead to a large portion of discarded genotypes or incorrect association findings. There is no published tool that predicts and converts among all major allele definitions.
In this study, we have developed a tool, GACT, which stands for Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool, that predicts and inter-converts between any of the common SNP allele definitions and between the major genome builds. In addition, we assessed several factors that may affect imputation quality, and our results indicated that inclusion of singletons in the reference had detrimental effects while ambiguous SNPs had no measurable effect. Unexpectedly, exclusion of genotypes with missing rate > 0.001 (40% of study SNPs) showed no significant decrease of imputation quality (even significantly higher when compared to the imputation with singletons in the reference), especially for rare SNPs.
GACT is a new, powerful, and user-friendly tool with both command-line and interactive online versions that can accurately predict, and convert between any of the common allele definitions and between genome builds for genome-wide meta-analysis and imputation of genotypes from SNP-arrays or deep-sequencing, particularly for data from the dbGaP and other public databases.
Allele definition (nomenclature), Genome build, Genome-wide association study (GWAS), Imputation, Meta-analysis
GACT: a Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool for SNP imputation and meta-analysis in genetic association studies
Reviewed by Arvis Sulovari1,2 and Dawei Licorresponding author1,3,4