Cardenolides and its Sapogenins
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Many studies have shown that the relationship between alcohol consumption and most cardiovascular diseases is U-shaped, with nondrinkers and heavier drinkers having higher risks than moderate drinkers. However, the association between cardiac arrhythmias and acute alcohol consumption is not well understood. We set up several experimental arrhythmia animal models to examine the effects of acute administration of ethanol on arrhythmia. The results showed 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg ethanol consumption obviously delayed the onset time of atrial fibrillation (AF) (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and increased the survival rates on acetylcholine-CaCl₂-induced AF in mice. Ethanol (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg) consumption significantly delayed the onset time of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiac arrest (CA) (P < 0.01), and 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg ethanol consumption increased the survival rates on CaCl₂-induced arrhythmia in rats. Ethanol (0.4 g/kg) essentially increased the cumulative dosage of aconitine required to CA (P < 0.05), and 0.8 g/kg, 1.6 g/kg ethanol reduced the cumulative aconitine dosage to induce VT, VF and CA (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) on aconitine-induced arrhythmia in rats. Ethanol (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 g/kg) consumption remarkably increased the cumulative dosage of deslanoside to induce ventricualr premature contraction (P < 0.01) on deslanoside-induced arrhythmia in guinea pigs. Collectively, our results indicate that low concentrations of ethanol had anti-arrhythmic effect on experimental arrhythmia, and high concentrations of ethanol may aggravated the occurrence of experimental arrhythmia.
Effects of acute administration of ethanol on experimental arrhythmia
Yang Gao 1, Peng Li, Li-Xia Ma, Ke-Xin Du, Xing-Hui Wang, Meng-Jie Tang, Hui-Kang He, Xiao-Jiang Yu, Wei-Jin Zang, Hao Hu
2012 Oct 31
Aim: To characterize the dual effects of deslanoside on the contractility of jejunal smooth muscle.
Methods: Eight pairs of different low and high contractile states of isolated jejunal smooth muscle fragment (JSMF) were established. Contractile amplitude of JSMF in different low and high contractile states was selected to determine the effects of deslanoside, and Western blotting analysis was performed to measure the effects of deslanoside on myosin phosphorylation of jejunal smooth muscle.
Results: Stimulatory effects on the contractility of JSMF were induced (45.3% ± 4.0% vs 87.0% ± 7.8%, P < 0.01) by deslanoside in 8 low contractile states, and inhibitory effects were induced (180.6% ± 17.8% vs 109.9% ± 10.8%, P < 0.01) on the contractility of JSMF in 8 high contractile states. The effect of deslanoside on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain of JSMF in low (78.1% ± 4.1% vs 96.0% ± 8.1%, P < 0.01) and high contractile state (139.2% ± 8.5% vs 105.5 ± 7.34, P < 0.01) was also bidirectional. Bidirectional regulation (BR) was abolished in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Deslanoside did not affect jejunal contractility pretreated with the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil or in a Ca(2+)-free assay condition. The stimulatory effect of deslanoside on JSMF in a low contractile state (low Ca(2+) induced) was abolished by atropine. The inhibitory effect of deslanoside on jejunal contractility in a high contractile state (high Ca(2+) induced) was blocked by phentolamine, propranolol and L-NG-nitro-arginine, respectively. Conclusion: Deslanoside-induced BR is Ca(2+) dependent and is related to cholinergic and adrenergic systems when JSMF is in low or high contractile states.
Bidirectional regulation; Contractile state; Deslanoside; Jejunal smooth muscle.
Characteristics of deslanoside-induced modulation on jejunal contractility
Da-Peng Chen 1, Yong-Jian Xiong, Ze-Yao Tang, Qi-Ying Yao, Dong-Mei Ye, Sha-Sha Liu, Yuan Lin
2012 Nov 7
Objective: To investigate the effects of single or combined administration of cedilanid and small-dose of enalaprilat on heart, liver, kidney and intestine damages at early stage of severe scald in rats.
Methods: Forty healthy male Wistar rats were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into: sham, burn control, cedilanid, enalaprilat, cedilanid + enalaprilat groups, with 8 rats in each group. Rats, except that of sham group (simulated scald with 37 degrees C water) were inflicted with 30% TBSA full-thickness scald, and were injected with Ringer’s lactate solution (4 mLxkg(-1)x1% TBSA(-1)) intraperitoneally 30 minutes after burn. Then rats in cedilanid group were given cedilanid injection (0.2 mg/kg) intravenously, and those in enalaprilat group were given enalaprilat (1 mg/kg), and cedilanid + enalaprilat group with cedilanid and enalapril in the same dosage. At 6 post burn hour (PBH) or sham injury, parameters of myocardiac mechanics were recorded with the Multiple Channel Physiological Signal Collecting and Processing System. The blood flow of the liver, kidney and intestine was respectively detected with the Laser Doppler Flowmetry at 6 PBH. Serum contents of cTnI, TBA, beta2-MG and DAO were determined at 6 PBH to reflect visceral damages.
Results: Compared with those in sham group, the parameters of myocardiac mechanics and blood flow of liver, kidney, intestine (158 +/- 32, 156 +/- 46, 119 +/- 30 PU, respectively) in burn control group were obviously decreased (P < 0.05), and the serum contents of cTnI, TBA, beta2-MG, DAO (5.0 +/- 0.3 microg/L, 82 +/- 23 micromol/L, 2.55 +/- 0.15 mg/L, 1.52 +/- 0.08 kU/L, respectively) in burn control group were obviously increased (P < 0.05). Compared with those in burn control group, the parameters of myocardiac mechanics and blood flow of liver, kidney, intestine in the cedilanid or enalaprilat groups increased markedly, and their serum contents of cTnI, TBA, beta2-MG, DAO decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with those in burn control group, the parameters of myocardiac mechanics and blood flow of liver, kidney, intestine (240 +/- 49, 239 +/- 75, 194 +/- 55 PU, respectively) in cedilanid + enalaprilat group increased significantly (P < 0.05), and the serum contents of cTnI, TBA, beta2-MG, DAO (3.43 +/- 0.21 microg/L, 47 +/- 8 micromol/L, 2.01 +/- 0.16 mg/L, 1.17 +/- 0.15 kU/L, respectively) were decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Single administration of cedilanid or small-dose enalaprilat can ameliorate impairment of cardiac functions, prevent damages to liver, kidney and intestine in early stage of severe scald in rats. Combined administration of cedilanid and small-dose enalaprilat seems to be more effective.
[Effects of single or combined administration of cedilanid and enalaprilat on visceral damages in early stage of severe scald in rats]
Rong Xiao 1, Yue-sheng Huang, Ze-yuan Lei, Jing Ruan