Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
500.0±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:143615-75-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The trade of live marine animals for home and public aquaria has grown into a major global industry. Millions of marine fishes and invertebrates are removed from coral reefs and associated habitats each year. The majority are imported into the United States, with the remainder sent to Europe, Japan, and a handful of other countries. Despite the recent growth and diversification of the aquarium trade, to date, data collection is not mandatory, and hence comprehensive information on species volume and diversity is lacking. This lack of information makes it impossible to study trade pathways. Without species-specific volume and diversity data, it is unclear how importing and exporting governments can oversee this industry effectively or how sustainability should be encouraged. To expand our knowledge and understanding of the trade, and to effectively communicate this new understanding, we introduce the publically-available Marine Aquarium Biodiversity and Trade Flow online database (https://www.aquariumtradedata.org/). This tool was created to communicate the volume and diversity of marine fishes and/or invertebrates imported into the US over three complete years (2008, 2009, and 2011) and three partial years (2000, 2004, 2005). To create this tool, invoices pertaining to shipments of live marine fishes and invertebrates were scanned and analyzed for species name, species quantities, country of origin, port of entry, and city of import destination. Here we focus on the analysis of the later three years of data and also produce an estimate for the entirety of 2000, 2004, and 2005. The three-year aggregate totals (2008, 2009, 2011) indicate that just under 2,300 fish and 725 invertebrate species were imported into the US cumulatively, although just under 1,800 fish and 550 invertebrate species were traded annually. Overall, the total number of live marine animals decreased between 2008 and 2011. In 2008, 2009, and 2011, the total number of individual fish (8.2, 7.3, and 6.9 million individuals) and invertebrates (4.2, 3.7, and 3.6 million individuals) assessed by analyzing the invoice data are roughly 60% of the total volumes recorded through the Law Enforcement Management Information System (LEMIS) dataset. Using these complete years, we back-calculated the number of individuals of both fishes and invertebrates imported in 2000, 2004, and 2005. These estimates (9.3, 10.8, and 11.2 million individual fish per year) were consistent with the three years of complete data. We also use these data to understand the global trade in two species (Banggai cardinalfish, Pterapogon kauderni, and orange clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris / percula) recently considered for Endangered Species Act listing. Aquariumtradedata.org can help create more effective management plans for the traded species, and ideally could be implemented at key trade ports to better assess the global trade of aquatic wildlife.
Marine aquarium trade, Wildlife trade, Coral reef, Data visualization
Expanding our understanding of the trade in marine aquarium animals
Andrew L. Rhyne,corresponding author1,2 Michael F. Tlusty,2,3 Joseph T. Szczebak,4 and Robert J. Holmberg3
The surveillance activities for abnormal bivalve mortality events in Italy include the diagnosis of ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1) in symptomatic oysters. OsHV-1-positive oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were used as a source for in vivo virus propagation and a virus-rich sample was selected to perform shotgun sequencing based on Illumina technology. Starting from this unpurified supernatant sample from gills and mantle, we generated 3.5 million reads (2×300 bp) and de novo assembled the whole genome of an Italian OsHV-1 microvariant (OsHV-1-PT). The OsHV-1-PT genome encodes 125 putative ORFs, 7 of which had not previously been predicted in other sequenced Malacoherpesviridae. Overall, OsHV-1-PT displays typical microvariant OsHV-1 genome features, while few polymorphisms (0.08 %) determine its uniqueness. As little is known about the genetic determinants of OsHV-1 virulence, comparing complete OsHV-1 genomes supports a better understanding of the virus pathogenicity and provides new insights into virus-host interactions.
Crassostrea gigas, Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 μVar, OsHV-1-PT, next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, complete genome
Identification of a newly described OsHV-1 µvar from the North Adriatic Sea (Italy)
Miriam Abbadi,1,2,* Gianpiero Zamperin,1 Michele Gastaldelli,1 Francesco Pascoli,1 Umberto Rosani,2 Adelaide Milani,1 Alessia Schivo,1 Emanuele Rossetti,3 Edoardo Turolla,4 Lorenzo Gennari,5 Anna Toffan,1 Giuseppe Arcangeli,1 and Paola Venier2,*
Kidney biopsies from Pima Indians with type II diabetes were analyzed. Subjects were classified clinically as having early diabetes (n = 10), microalbuminuria (n = 17), normoalbuminuria, despite a duration of diabetes equal to that of the subjects with microalbuminuria (n = 12), or clinical nephropathy (n = 12). Subjects with microalbuminuria exhibited moderate increases in glomerular and mesangial volume when compared with those with early diabetes, but could not be distinguished from subjects who remained normoalbuminuric after an equal duration of diabetes. Subjects with clinical nephropathy exhibited global glomerular sclerosis and more prominent structural abnormalities in nonsclerosed glomeruli. Marked mesangial expansion was accompanied by a further increase in total glomerular volume. Glomerular capillary surface area remained stable, but the glomerular basement membrane thickness was increased and podocyte foot processes were broadened. Broadening of podocyte foot processes was associated with a reduction in the number of podocytes per glomerulus and an increase in the surface area covered by remaining podocytes. These findings suggest that podocyte loss contributes to the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
Podocyte loss and progressive glomerular injury in type II diabetes.
M E Pagtalunan, P L Miller, S Jumping-Eagle, R G Nelson, B D Myers, H G Rennke, N S Coplon, L Sun, and T W Meyer
1997 Jan 15;