HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:101831-37-2) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Triazines are relatively new antiprotozoal drugs that have successfully controlled coccidiosis and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. These drugs have favorably treated other protozoal diseases such as neosporosis and toxoplasmosis. In this article, we discuss the pharmacological characteristics of five triazines, toltrazuril, ponazuril, clazuril, diclazuril, and nitromezuril which are used in veterinary medicine to control protozoal diseases which include coccidiosis, equine protozoal myeloencephalitis, neosporosis, and toxoplasmosis.
Review of Triazine Antiprotozoal Drugs Used in Veterinary Medicine
M L Stock 1, S T Elazab 1 2, W H Hsu 1
Ovine Eimeria spp. infections cause increased mortality, reduced welfare and substantial economic losses, and anticocccidials are important for their control. Recent reports of anticoccidial resistance against ovine Eimeria spp. necessitate the development of in vitro methods for the detection of reduced anticoccidial efficacy, especially since the in vivo methods are both expensive, time consuming and requires the use of otherwise healthy animals. The aim of the present study was therefore to approach a preliminary standardization of in vitro assays for evaluation of the efficacy of the most commonly used anticoccidials in ruminants. For this purpose, apart from the evaluation of inhibition of oocyst sporulation, most effort was concentrated on assessment of the capacity of the different anticoccidials to inhibit both the invasion and further development (up to the first schizogony) of E. ninakohlyakimovae sporozoites in bovine colonic epithelial cells (BCEC). For this purpose, infected cultures were monitored 1, 8 and 15 days post infection to determine the infection rate, number of immature schizonts and number, size and appearance of mature schizonts, respectively. No clear inhibitory effect was found with any of the anticoccidial formulations tested, and we could not identify why there were no measurable effects from the different anticoccidials. Despite the lack of positive results, further investigations should be encouraged, as this could decrease the need for animal experiments and could be used in the initial assessment of anticoccidial efficacy of new drugs.
Anticoccidial resistance; Bovine colonic epithelial cells; Eimeria spp.; In vitro assay.
Preliminary Studies on in Vitro Methods for the Evaluation of Anticoccidial Efficacy/Resistance in Ruminants
Ane Odden 1, Snorre Stuen 2, Heidi L Enemark 3, Lucy J Robertson 4, Jose Manuel Molina 5, Antonio Ruiz 5
Sarcocystis neurona is a ubiquitous parasite in the eastern United States, which is the principal causative agent in the neurologic disorder equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). While much is known about this protozoa’s life cycle in its natural host, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana), little is known of how it acts in the aberrant equine host, which displays a high incidence of exposure with a relatively low rate of morbidity. For this study, we employed the popular interferon gamma knockout mouse model to determine the potential for recrudescence of S. neurona infection after treatment with the anticoccidial drug diclazuril. Mice were infected with S. neurona merozoites, and 7-days post-infection (DPI) they were treated with diclazuril for 30 or 60 days or not treated at all. All infected non-treated mice developed neurologic signs consistent with S. neurona infection within 30 DPI. All diclazuril-treated infected mice remained clinically normal while on treatment but developed neurologic signs within 60 days of treatment cessation. Histological examination of cerebella from all infected mice demonstrated characteristic lesions of S. neurona infection, regardless of treatment status. Cerebellar samples collected from infected treated mice, displaying neurologic signs, produced viable S. neurona in culture. However, cerebellar samples collected from infected and neurologically normal mice at the end of a 30-day treatment period did not produce viable S. neurona in culture. Analysis of the humoral immune response in infected mice showed that during treatment IgM antibody production decreased, suggesting the organism was sequestered from immune surveillance. The cessation of treatment and subsequent development of neurologic disease resulted in increased IgM antibody production, suggesting recognition by the immune system at that time. Based on the study results the authors propose that diclazuril was able to inhibit the replication and migration of S. neurona but not fully eliminate the parasite, suggesting recrudescence of infection after treatment is possible.
Diclazuril; Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis; Horse; Opossum; Relapse.
Sarcocystis neurona-Induced Myeloencephalitis Relapse Following Anticoccidial Treatment
Alayna N Hay 1, Sharon G Witonsky 2, David S Lindsay 3, Tanya LeRoith 3, Jing Zhu 1, Leah Kasmark 1, Caroline M Leeth 1