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In this article, we describe the dataset used in our study entitled “The interaction between district-level development and individual-level socioeconomic gradients of cardiovascular disease risk factors in India: A cross-sectional study of 2.4 million adults”, recently published in Social Science & Medicine, and present supplementary analyses.
We used data from three different household surveys in India, which are representative at the district level. Specifically, we analyzed pooled data from the District-Level Household Survey 4 (DLHS-4) and the second update of the Annual Health Survey (AHS), and separately analyzed data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). The DLHS-4 and AHS sampled adults aged 18 years or older between 2012 and 2014, while the NFHS-4 sampled women aged 15-49 years and – in a subsample of 15% of households – men aged 15-54 years in 2015 and 2016.
The measures of individual-level socio-economic status that we used in both datasets were educational attainment and household wealth quintiles. The measures of district-level development, which we calculated from these data, were i) the percentage of participants living in an urban area, ii) female literacy rate, and iii) the district-level median of the continuous household wealth index. An additional measure of district-level development that we used was Gross Domestic Product per capita, which we obtained from the Planning Commission of the Government of India for 2004/2005.
Our outcome variables were diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and current smoking. The data were analyzed using both district-level regressions and multilevel modelling.
India, Cardiovascular disease, Education, Household wealth, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Smoking, Obesity, Multi-level modelling Abbreviations: DLHS-4, District-Level Household Survey 4; AHS, Annual Health Survey; NFHS-4, National Family Health Survey; CVD, cardiovascular disease; SES, socio-economic status; PSU, primary sampling unit; CAB, Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical
Nationally representative household survey data for studying the interaction between district-level development and individual-level socioeconomic gradients of cardiovascular disease risk factors in India
Lara Jung, Jan-Walter De Neve, Simiao Chen, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Lindsay M. Jaacks, Daniel J. Corsi, Ashish Awasthi, S.V. Subramanian, Sebastian Vollmer, Till Barnighausen, Pascal Geldsetzer
Multiple approaches utilizing viral and DNA vectors have shown promise in the development of an effective vaccine against HIV. In this study, an alternative replication-defective flavivirus vector, RepliVax (RV), was evaluated for the delivery of HIV-1 immunogens. Recombinant RV-HIV viruses were engineered to stably express clade C virus Gag and Env (gp120TM) proteins and propagated in Vero helper cells. RV-based vectors enabled efficient expression and correct maturation of Gag and gp120TM proteins, were apathogenic in a sensitive suckling mouse neurovirulence test, and were similar in immunogenicity to recombinant poxvirus NYVAC-HIV vectors in homologous or heterologous prime-boost combinations in mice. In a pilot NHP study, immunogenicity of RV-HIV viruses used as a prime or boost for DNA or NYVAC candidates was compared to a DNA prime/NYVAC boost benchmark scheme when administered together with adjuvanted gp120 protein. Similar neutralizing antibody titers, binding IgG titers measured against a broad panel of Env and Gag antigens, and ADCC responses were observed in the groups throughout the course of the study, and T cell responses were elicited. The entire data demonstrate that RV vectors have the potential as novel HIV-1 vaccine components for use in combination with other promising candidates to develop new effective vaccination strategies.
Subject terms: Molecular engineering, Preclinical research, Molecular medicine
Recombinant HIV-1 vaccine candidates based on replication-defective flavivirus vector
M. Giel-Moloney, M. Esteban, B. H. Oakes, M. Vaine, B. Asbach, R. Wagner, G. J. Mize, A. G. Spies, J. McElrath, M. Perreau, T. Roger, A. Ives, T. Calandra, D. Weiss, B. Perdiguero, K. V. Kibler, B. Jacobs, S. Ding, G. D. Tomaras, D. C. Montefiori, G. Ferrari, N. L. Yates, M. Roederer, S. F. Kao, K. E. Foulds, B. T. Mayer, C. Bennett, R. Gottardo, M. Parrington, J. Tartaglia, S. Phogat, G. Pantaleo, H. Kleanthous, K. V. Pugachev
2019 Dec 27.
With drug treatment for dementia being of limited effectiveness, the role of primary prevention, in particular the predictive value of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors, may warrant exploration. The evidence base is, however, characterised by discordant findings and is modest in size. Accordingly, we examined the association of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors with dementia death.
Design and methods
We pooled raw data from 10 UK general population-based prospective cohort studies within the context of an individual participant meta-analysis.
A total of 103,764 men and women were followed up for a mean of 8 years giving rise to 443 dementia-related deaths and 2612 cardiovascular disease deaths. Cardiovascular disease mortality was, as anticipated, associated with the full range of risk factors under study, including raised blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, physical inactivity. By contrast, dementia death was related to very few of the cardiovascular disease risk factors: of those classified as modifiable, only smoking was associated with a raised risk and higher levels of non-HDL with a lower risk.
In the present individual participant meta-analysis, there was limited evidence that cardiovascular disease risk factors were related to dementia death.
Modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors as predictors of dementia death: pooling of ten general population-based cohort studies
G David Batty, Tom C Russ, John M Starr, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Mika Kivimaki