White crystalline powder
Piper methysticum Forst
2H-Pyran-2-one, 6-[2-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)ethyl]-5,6-dihydro-4-methoxy-, (6S)-/(6S)-6-[2-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)ethyl]-5,6-dihydro-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-one Dihydromethysticin/(6S)-6-[2-(1,3-Benzodioxol-5-yl)ethyl]-4-methoxy-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-one/DIHYDROMETHYSTICIN
Methanol; Chloroform; Pyridine
476.1±45.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:19902-91-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Cannabis smoking increases motor vehicle accident risk. Empirically defined cannabinoid detection windows are important to drugged driving legislation. Our aims were to establish plasma cannabinoid detection windows in frequent cannabis smokers and to determine if residual cannabinoid concentrations were correlated with psychomotor performance. Twenty-eight male chronic frequent cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days with daily blood collection. Plasma specimens were analyzed for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Critical tracking and divided attention tasks were administered at baseline (after overnight stay to ensure lack of acute intoxication) and after 1, 2 and 3 weeks cannabis abstinence. Twenty-seven of 28 participants were THC-positive at admission (median 4.2 μg/L). THC concentrations significantly decreased 24 h after admission, but were still ≥2 μg/L in 16 of 28 participants 48 h after admission. THC was detected in 3 of 5 specimens on day 30. The last positive 11-OH-THC specimen was 15 days after admission. THCCOOH was measureable in 4 of 5 participants after 30 days of abstinence. Years of prior cannabis use significantly correlated with THC concentrations on admission, and days 7 and 14. Tracking error, evaluated by the Divided Attention Task, was the only evaluated psychomotor assessment significantly correlated with cannabinoid concentrations at baseline and day 8 (11-OH-THC only). Median THC was 0.3 μg/L in 5 chronic frequent cannabis smokers’ plasma samples after 30 days of sustained abstinence. Tracking error significantly correlated with cannabinoid baseline concentrations
Cannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabis, chronic, abstinence
Extended Plasma Cannabinoid Excretion in Chronic Frequent Cannabis Smokers During Sustained Abstinence and Correlation with Psychomotor Performance
Erin L. Karschner,a,b Madeleine J. Swortwood,a Jussi Hirvonen,c,d Robert S. Goodwin,a,e Wendy M. Bosker,a,f,g Johannes G. Ramaekers,g and Marilyn A. Huestis*,a
2017 Jul 1.
Synthetic cannabinoids emerged on the designer drug market in recent years due to their ability to produce cannabis-like effects without the risk of detection by traditional drug testing techniques such as immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. As government agencies work to schedule existing synthetic cannabinoids, new, unregulated and structurally diverse compounds continue to be developed and sold. Synthetic cannabinoids undergo extensive metabolic conversion. Consequently, both blood and urine specimens may play an important role in the forensic analysis of synthetic cannabinoids. It has been observed that structurally similar synthetic cannabinoids follow common metabolic pathways, which often produce metabolites with similar metabolic transformations. Presented are two validated quantitative methods for extracting and identifying 15 parent synthetic cannabinoids in blood, 17 synthetic cannabinoid metabolites in urine and the qualitative identification of 2 additional parent compounds. The linear range for most synthetic cannabinoid compounds monitored was 0.1-10 ng/mL with the limit of detection between 0.01 and 0.5 ng/mL. Selectivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery and matrix effect were also examined and determined to be acceptable for each compound. The validated methods were used to analyze a compilation of synthetic cannabinoid investigative cases where both blood and urine specimens were submitted. The study suggests a strong correlation between the metabolites detected in urine and the parent compounds found in blood.
Analysis of Parent Synthetic Cannabinoids in Blood and Urinary Metabolites by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Jessica L. Knittel,* Justin M. Holler, Jeffrey D. Chmiel, Shawn P. Vorce, Joseph Magluilo, Jr, Barry Levine, Gerardo Ramos, and Thomas Z. Bosy
Background and objective
Aerosol therapies are widely used for mechanically ventilated patients. However, the practice pattern of aerosol therapy in mainland China remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the current practice of aerosol therapy in mainland China.
A web-based survey was conducted by the China Union of Respiratory Care (CURC) from August 2018 to January 2019. The survey was disseminated via Email or WeChat to members of CURC. A questionnaire comprising 16 questions related to hospital information and 12 questions related to the practice of aerosol therapy. Latent class analysis was employed to identify the distinct classes of aerosol therapy practice.
A total of 693 valid questionnaires were returned by respiratory care practitioners from 447 hospitals. Most of the practitioners used aerosol therapy for both invasive mechanical ventilation (90.8%) and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (91.3%). Practitioners from tertiary care centers were more likely to use aerosol therapy compared with those from non-tertiary care centers (91.9% vs. 85.4%, respectively; p = 0.035). The most commonly used drugs for aerosol therapy were bronchodilators (64.8%) followed by mucolytic agents (44.2%), topical corticosteroids (43.4%) and antibiotics (16.5%). The ultrasonic nebulizer (48.3%) was the most commonly used followed by the jet nebulizer (39.2%), the metered dose inhaler (15.4%) and the vibrating mesh nebulizer (14.6%). Six latent classes were identified via latent class analysis. Class 1 was characterized by the aggressive use of aerosol therapy without a standard protocol, while class 3 was characterized by the absence of aerosol therapy.
Substantial heterogeneity among institutions with regard to the use of aerosol therapy was noted. The implementation of aerosol therapy during mechanical ventilation was inconsistent in light of recent practice guidelines. Additional efforts by the CURC to improve the implementation of aerosol therapy in mainland China are warranted.
Practice pattern of aerosol therapy among patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in mainland China: A web-based survey involving 447 hospitals
Zhongheng Zhang, Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Software, Writing - original draft,1 Peifeng Xu, Data curation, Investigation,2 Qiang Fang, Investigation, Validation,3 Penglin Ma, Resources, Supervision, Visualization,4 Huiling Lin, Methodology, Resources, Validation,5 Jim B. Fink, Methodology, Validation, Writing - review & editing,6 Zongan Liang, Investigation, Writing - review & editing,7 Rongchang Chen, Project administration, Validation, Writing - review & editing,8 Huiqing Ge, Conceptualization, Data curation, Writing - review & editing,2,* and on behalf of the China Union of Respiratory Care (CURC)¶
Dihydromethysticin is one of the six major kavalactones found in the kava plant; has marked activity on the induction of CYP3A23.