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The prevalence of germ line mutations in non?BRCA1/2 genes associated with hereditary breast cancer (BC) is low, and the role of some of these genes in BC predisposition and pathogenesis is conflicting. In this study, 5589 consecutive BC index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and 2189 female controls were screened for germ line mutations in eight cancer predisposition genes (ATM,CDH1,CHEK2,NBN,PALB2,RAD51C,RAD51D, and TP53). All patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germ line testing. The highest mutation prevalence was observed in the CHEK2 gene (2.5%), followed by ATM (1.5%) and PALB2 (1.2%). The mutation prevalence in each of the remaining genes was 0.3% or lower. Using Exome Aggregation Consortium control data, we confirm significant associations of heterozygous germ line mutations with BC for ATM (OR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.67-4.94), CDH1 (OR: 17.04, 95%CI: 3.54-82), CHEK2 (OR: 2.93, 95%CI: 2.29-3.75), PALB2 (OR: 9.53, 95%CI: 6.25-14.51), and TP53 (OR: 7.30, 95%CI: 1.22-43.68). NBN germ line mutations were not significantly associated with BC risk (OR:1.39, 95%CI: 0.73-2.64). Due to their low mutation prevalence, the RAD51C and RAD51D genes require further investigation. Compared with control datasets, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in CHEK2 and TP53 in BC index patients. Compared with the overall sample, only TP53 mutation carriers show a significantly younger age at first BC diagnosis. We demonstrate a significant association of deleterious variants in the CHEK2,PALB2, and TP53 genes with bilateral BC. Both, ATM and CHEK2, were negatively associated with triple?negative breast cancer (TNBC) and estrogen receptor (ER)?negative tumor phenotypes. A particularly high CHEK2 mutation prevalence (5.2%) was observed in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)?positive tumors.
Breast cancer predisposition, hereditary breast cancer
Gene panel testing of 5589 BRCA1/2?negative index patients with breast cancer in a routine diagnostic setting: results of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer
Jan Hauke, 1 Judit Horvath, 2 Eva Groß, 3 Andrea Gehrig, 4 Ellen Honisch, 5 Karl Hackmann, 6 Gunnar Schmidt, 7 Norbert Arnold, 8 Ulrike Faust, 9 Christian Sutter, 10 Julia Hentschel, 11 Shan Wang?Gohrke, 12 Mateja Smogavec, 13 Bernhard H. F. Weber, 14 Nana Weber?Lassalle, 1 Konstantin Weber?Lassalle, 1 Julika Borde, 1 Corinna Ernst, 1 Janine Altmuller, 15 , 16 , 17 Alexander E. Volk, 18 Holger Thiele, 15 , 16 , 17 Verena Hubbel, 1 Peter Nurnberg, 15 , 16 , 17 Katharina Keupp, 1 Beatrix Versmold, 1 Esther Pohl, 1 Christian Kubisch, 18 Sabine Grill, 3 Victoria Paul, 2 Natalie Herold, 1 Nadine Lichey, 2 Kerstin Rhiem, 1 Nina Ditsch, 19 Christian Ruckert, 2 Barbara Wappenschmidt, 1 Bernd Auber, 7 Andreas Rump, 6 Dieter Niederacher, 5 Thomas Haaf, 4 Juliane Ramser, 3 Bernd Dworniczak, 2 Christoph Engel, 20 , 21 Alfons Meindl, 3 Rita K. Schmutzler, 1 and Eric Hahnencorresponding author 1
Galactose-grown cells of the heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus buchneri transported methyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (TMG) by an active transport mechanism and accumulated intracellular free TMG when provided with an exogenous source of energy, such as arginine. The intracellular concentration of TMG resultant under these conditions was approximately 20-fold higher than that in the medium. In contrast, the provision of energy by metabolism of glucose, gluconate, or glucosamine promoted a rapid but transient uptake of TMG followed by efflux that established a low cellular concentration of the galactoside, i.e., only two- to fourfold higher than that in the medium. Furthermore, the addition of glucose to cells preloaded with TMG in the presence of arginine elicited a rapid efflux of the intracellular galactoside. The extent of cellular TMG displacement and the duration of the transient effect of glucose on TMG transport were related to the initial concentration of glucose in the medium. Exhaustion of glucose from the medium restored uptake and accumulation of TMG, providing arginine was available for ATP generation. The nonmetabolizable sugar 2-deoxyglucose elicited efflux of TMG from preloaded cells of L. buchneri but not from those of L. brevis. Phosphorylation of this glucose analog was catalyzed by cell extracts of L. buchneri but not by those of L. brevis. Iodoacetate, at a concentration that inhibits growth and ATP production from glucose, did not prevent efflux of cellular TMG elicited by glucose. The results suggested that a phosphorylated metabolite(s) at or above the level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate was required to evoke displacement of intracellular TMG from the cells. Counterflow experiments suggested that glucose converted the active uptake of TMG in L. brevis to a facilitated diffusion mechanism that allowed equilibrium of TMG between the extra- and intracellular milieux. The means by which glucose metabolites elicited this vectorial regulation is not known, but similarities to the inducer expulsion that has been described for homofermentative Streptococcus and Lactobacillus species suggested the involvement of HPr, a protein that functions as a phosphocarrier protein in the phosphotransferase system, as well as a presumptive regulator of sugar transport. Indeed, complementation assays wit extracts of Staphylococcus aureus ptsH mutant revealed the presence of HPr in L. brevis, although this lactobacillus lacked a functional phaosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphortransferase system for glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, or TMG.
Regulation of beta-galactoside transport and accumulation in heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria.
A H Romano, G Brino, A Peterkofsky, and J Reizer
Nearly all cells respond to an increase in temperature by inducing a set of proteins, called heat shock proteins (HSPs). Because a large number of other stress conditions induce the HSPs (or at least the most abundant ones), this response is often termed the universal stress response. However, a careful study of conditions that truly mimic a temperature shift suggested that these proteins are induced in response to a change in the translational capacity of the cell. To test this directly, Escherichia coli cells were treated with antibiotics that target the prokaryotic ribosome. Two-dimensional gels were used to evaluate the ability of these drugs to alter the rate of synthesis of the HSPs. One group of antibiotics induced the HSPs, whereas a second group repressed the HSPs and induced another set of proteins normally induced in response to a cold shock. Depending on the concentration used, the induction of the heat or cold shock proteins mimicked a mild or severe temperature shift. In addition, antibiotics of the cold shock-inducing group were found to block high temperature induction of the HSPs. The results implicate the ribosome as a prokaryotic sensor for the heat and cold shock response networks, a role it may serve in eukaryotes as well.
Ribosomes as sensors of heat and cold shock in Escherichia coli.
R A VanBogelen and F C Neidhardt