399.3±42.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:133-37-9) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Purpose: The purpose of this research was to study the basic physicochemical and biological properties regarding the application of L-tartaric acid modified chiral mesoporous silica nanoparticle (CMSN) as a drug carrier, and to explore the structure-property relationship of silica-based materials.
Methods: CMSN with functions of carboxyl modification and chirality was successfully synthesized through co-condensation method, and the basic characteristics of CMSN, including morphology, structure, wettability, degradation, bio-adhesion and retention ability in gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) were estimated by comparing with non-functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN). Meanwhile, the biocompatibility and toxicity of L-tartaric modification were systematically evaluated both in vitro and in vivo through MTT cell viability assay, cell cycle and apoptosis assay, hemolysis assay, histopathology examination, hematology analysis, and clinical chemistry examination.
Results: CMSN and MSN were spherical nanoparticles with uniform mesoporous structure. CMSN with smaller pore size and carboxyl functional groups exhibited better wettability. Besides, CMSN and MSN could dissolve thoroughly in simulated physiological fluids during a degradation period of 1-12 weeks. Interestingly, the in vitro and in vivo behaviors of carriers, including degradation, bio-adhesion and retention ability in the GI tract were closely related to wettability. As expected, CMSN had faster degradation rate, higher mucosa-adhesion ability, and longer retention time. Particularly, CMSN improved the bio-adhesion property in both gastric mucosa and small intestinal mucosa, and prolonged the GI tract retention time to at least 12 h, which meant higher probability for absorption. The biocompatibility and toxicity examination indicated that CMSN was a kind of biocompatible bio-material with good blood compatibility and negligible toxicity, which is required for further applications in biological fields.
Conclusion: CMSN with functions of carboxyl modification and chirality had superiority in terms of both physicochemical and biological properties. The in vitro and in vivo behaviors of carriers, including degradation, bio-adhesion, and retention were closely related to wettability.
bio-adhesion; biocompatibility; carboxyl modification; chiral mesoporous silica; wettability.
Superiority of L-tartaric Acid Modified Chiral Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle as a Drug Carrier: Structure, Wettability, Degradation, Bio-Adhesion and Biocompatibility
Beibei Hu 1 2, Jianxin Wang 3, Jing Li 3, Sanming Li 3, Heran Li 1
2020 Jan 29;
Emulsifiers of the type E 472 are esters of fruit acids and mono- and diacylglycerols (MAG and DAG), which are used to adjust techno-functional properties in various food products. The most dominant representatives of E 472 emulsifiers are acetic acid esters (E 472a), lactic acid esters (E 472b), citric acid esters (E 472c), and mono- and diacetyl tartaric acid esters (E 472e). For the determination of fruit acids, a high-performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet light (HPLC-UV) detection was developed. Free and total fruit acids were determined by reversed phase HPLC-UV analysis of untreated and saponified emulsifier extracts with 20 mM potassium hydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.6) as isocratic eluent. Limits of quantitation of 0.08-0.27 g free fruit acid/kg emulsifier and 4-14 g total fruit acid/kg granted a reliable method with recoveries for free and total fruit acids between 80 and 100% with relative standard deviations (%RSD) below 4%. For the quantitation of free glycerol by spectrophotometry, an enzymatic assay was optimized for the analysis of E 472 providing reliable results with %RSD values below 9%. In addition, the ash content of E 472 emulsifiers was determined.
Food emulsifiers; Free and total fruit acids; Fruit acid esters of mono- and diacylglycerols; Glycerol; HPLC-UV; Minerals.
Characterization of E 472 food emulsifiers - determination of bound and free fruit acids, free glycerol and ash content
Claudia Oellig 1, Katharina Link 2, Wolfgang Schwack 2
2020 May 24;
The zoonotic disease Q fever caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii remains a global health threat due to its high infectivity, environmental stability, the debilitating nature and the long duration of treatment. Designing new and potent drugs that target previously unexplored pathways is essential to shorten treatment time and minimise antibiotic resistance. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is an essential and ubiquitous cofactor in all living organisms. NadB, an L-aspartate oxidase catalysing the first step of the prokaryotic-specific NAD de novo biosynthetic pathway, is required for C. burnetii growth and replication inside host cells. In this study, in vitro enzyme assays utilising recombinant glutathione S-transferase tagged NadB (GST-NadB) demonstrated inhibition of the L-aspartate oxidase activity of NadB by meso-tartrate. Furthermore, meso-tartrate inhibits intracellular growth and replication of C. burnetii inside host cells in a dose-dependent manner, and has no effect on the viability of mammalian cells. Unexpectedly, meso-tartrate also inhibited growth of C. burnetii in axenic medium, and further reduces replication of the nadB mutant inside host cells, suggesting it is acting more widely than simple inhibition of NadB. Overall, these results suggest that the antibacterial activity of meso-tartrate warrants further study, including investigation of its additional target(s).
Coxiella burnetii; NAD synthesis; Q fever; antimicrobial; enzyme inhibition; meso-tartrate.
Meso-tartrate inhibits intracellular replication of Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease Q fever
Mebratu A Bitew 1, Nadeeka K Wawegama 1, Hayley J Newton 2, Fiona M Sansom 1
2019 Nov 1;