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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:560-66-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
This study was designed to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects and mechanisms of eburicoic acid (TRR); one component of Antrodia camphorata in vitro and in an animal model for 14 weeks. Expression levels of membrane glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4); phospho-5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/total AMPK; and phospho-Akt/total-Akt in insulin-resistant C2C12 myotube cells were significantly decreased by palmitate; and such decrease was prevented and restored by TRR at different concentrations. A group of control (CON) was on low-fat diet over a period of 14 weeks. Diabetic mice; after high-fat-diet (HFD) induction for 10 weeks; were randomly divided into six groups and were given once a day oral gavage doses of either TRR (at three dosage levels); fenofibrate (Feno) (at 0.25 g/kg body weight); metformin (Metf) (at 0.3 g/kg body weight); or vehicle (distilled water) (HF group) over a period of 4 weeks and still on HFD. Levels of glucose; triglyceride; free fatty acid (FFA); insulin; and leptin in blood were increased in 14-week HFD-fed mice as compared to the CON group; and the increases were prevented by TRR, Feno, or Metf as compared to the HF group. Moreover, HFD-induction displayed a decrease in circulating adiponectin levels, and the decrease was prevented by TRR, Feno, or Metf treatment. The overall effect of TRR is to decrease glucose and triglyceride levels and improved peripheral insulin sensitivity. Eburicoic acid, Feno, and Metf displayed both enhanced expression levels of phospho-AMPK and membrane expression levels of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle of HFD-fed mice to facilitate glucose uptake with consequent enhanced hepatic expression levels of phospho-AMPK in the liver and phosphorylation of the transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) but decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) of phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) to inhibit hepatic glucose production; resulting in lowered blood glucose levels. Moreover; TRR treatment increased hepatic expression levels of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) to enhance fatty acid oxidation; but displayed a reduction in expressions of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS) but an increase in fatty acid oxidation PPARα coincident with a decrease in hepatic mRNA levels of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c); resulting in a decrease in blood triglycerides and amelioration of hepatic ballooning degeneration. Eburicoic acid-treated mice reduced adipose expression levels of lipogenic FAS and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and led to decreased adipose lipid accumulation. The present findings demonstrated that TRR exhibits a beneficial therapeutic potential in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia.
Antrodia camphorata; diabetes; eburicoic acid; fatty acid synthase; forkhead box protein O1; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α.
Eburicoic Acid, a Triterpenoid Compound from Antrodia camphorata, Displays Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects in Palmitate-Treated C2C12 Myotubes and in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice
Cheng-Hsiu Lin 1, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo 2 3, Chun-Ching Shih 4
2017 Nov 2;
Excessive activation of macrophages has been implicated in various types of inflammatory injury. Suppression of macrophage activation would have therapeutic benefits, leading to the alleviation of the progression of inflammatory diseases. Eburicoic acid (EA) is one of main bioactive components isolated from Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.:Fr.) Murrill. In our previous study, we found that EA possessed anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory activities remain to be poorly understood. The present study aimed to further evaluate its effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect by modulating LPS-induced activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that EA caused no obvious cytotoxicity, and its suitable concentrations on RAW264.7 cells were in the range from 0.02 to 0.08 μM. EA significantly inhibited the releases of inflammatory mediators, nitrite oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2); suppressed mRNA and protein expression levels of inducible nitrite oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β; and reduced levels of phosphorylated PI3K, Akt, mTOR, and NF-κBp65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. These aforementioned results indicated that EA executed anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and this effect might be achieved via suppressing the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/NF-κB signaling pathway and inhibiting the LPS-induced productions of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Eburicoic acid; Inflammatory mediators; PI3K/Akt/mTOR/NF-κB signaling pathway; Pro-inflammatory cytokines; RAW264.7 cells.
Eburicoic acid from Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.:Fr.) Murrill attenuates inflammatory responses through inhibiting LPS-induced activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR/NF-κB pathways in RAW264.7 cells
Junzhi Wang 1 2, Pan Zhang 1, Haibo He 3 4, Xinxin Se 1, Wenjun Sun 1, Beiyan Chen 1, Lin Zhang 1, Ximing Yan 1, Kun Zou 1 2
In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and tumor-inhibiting effects of eburicoic acid, the main bioactive component in the Laetiporus sulphureus, on gastric ulcers. A total of 48 Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, OL (omeprazole, 20 mg/kg/day, orally), EA-L (eburicoic acid, 10 mg/kg/day, orally), EA-M (eburicoic acid, 20 mg/kg/day, orally), and EA-H (eburicoic acid, 40 mg/kg/day, orally). Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by administering 80% ethanol containing 15 mg/mL aspirin (10.0 mL/kg, i.g.) 4 hours after drug administration on day 5. The ulcer index and H+/K+-ATPase activity were evaluated in vivo. Computer-aided molecular docking simulated the interaction between eburicoic acid and H+/K+-ATPase. The results showed that the oral administration of eburicoic acid protected the gastric mucosa from gastric lesions morphologically and especially attenuated H+/K+-ATPase activity. The results of this study indicate that the gastric protective effect of eburicoic acid might inhibit gastric acid.
Protective Effect of Eburicoic Acid of the Chicken of the Woods Mushroom, Laetiporus sulphureus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Against Gastric Ulcers in Mice
Junzhi Wang 1, Wenjun Sun 1, Huajun Luo 1, Haibo He 1, Weiqiao Deng 2, Kun Zou 1, Can Liu 3, Jing Song 4, Wenfeng Huang 4