Phenanthrenes from Juncus effusus with anxiolytic and sedative activities. PUMID/DOI：DOI:10.1080/14786419.2011.561491 Nat Prod Res. 2012;26(13):1234-9. Eight phenanthrenes, 7-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-vinyl-phenanthrene (1); 2,7-dihydroxy-1-methyl-5-aldehyde-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (2); dehydroeffusol (3); dehydrojuncusol (4); 7-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-vinyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (5); 8-carboxy-2-hydroxy-1-methyl-5-vinyl-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (6); effusol (7) and juncusol (8), were isolated from the aerial part of Juncus effusus. Compounds 1 and 2 were identified as new constituents. Compounds 7 and 8 showed anxiolytic and sedative activities. Biocontrol activity of effusol from the extremophile plant, Juncus maritimus, against the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. PUMID/DOI：DOI:10.1007/s11356-017-9043-0 Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 May 8. Zymoseptoria tritici, responsible for Septoria tritici blotch, is the most important pathogen of wheat. The control of this parasite relies mainly on synthetic fungicides, but their use is increasingly controversial and searching for alternative management strategies is encouraged. In this context, the biocontrol potential of crude methanolic extracts of eight extremophile plant species from Tunisia, including three xerophytes and five halophytes, against Z. tritici was assessed. Only the extract of Juncus maritimus rhizomes showed significant in vitro antifungal activity. In extremophile plants, the production of secondary metabolites is often influenced by abiotic conditions. Thus, we collected several samples of J. maritimus rhizomes at different vegetative stages, at different periods, and from different substrates to compare their antifungal activities. Our results suggest that the plant environment, especially the substrate of the soil, should be taken into account to identify great sources of natural antifungal products. From the most active sample, a 9,10-dehydrophenanthrene derivative, effusol, absent from other J. maritimus rhizomes extracts, was purified. This product showed a strong antifungal activity against the pathogen, with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 19 μg mL-1 and an half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 9.98 μg mL-1. This phenanthrene derivative could be a promising biocontrol molecule against Z. tritici.
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
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In the title compound, [Fe(C5H5)(C20H14NO3)], the cyclopentadienyl rings deviate by 9.3 (2)° from an eclipsed conformation, defined by C—Cg 1—Cg 2—C pseudo-torsion angles ranging from 8.8 (1) to 9.85 (1)°. The coordination at the N atom is slightly pyramidal, as indicated by the angular sum around it of 352.6°. The amide group is inclined at 17.86 (9) and 27.27 (11)° with respect to the aromatic rings. In the crystal, molecules are linked by one C—H⋯O hydrogen bond and one C—H⋯π interaction into a two-dimensional framework parallel to the b axis.
Mario Cetina,a,* Veronika Kovac,b,* and Vladimir Rapićb
2011 May 1;
Specific immune priming enables an induced immune response upon repeated pathogen encounter. As a functional analogue to vertebrate immune memory, such adaptive plasticity has been described, for instance, in insects and crustaceans. However, towards the base of the metazoan tree our knowledge about the existence of specific immune priming becomes scattered. Here, we exposed the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi repeatedly to two different bacterial epitopes (Gram-positive or -negative) and measured gene expression. Ctenophores experienced either the same bacterial epitope twice (homologous treatments) or different bacterial epitopes (heterologous treatments). Our results demonstrate that immune gene expression depends on earlier bacterial exposure. We detected significantly different expression upon heterologous compared with homologous bacterial treatment at three immune activator and effector genes. This is the first experimental evidence for specific immune priming in Ctenophora and generally in non-bilaterian animals, hereby adding to our growing notion of plasticity in innate immune systems across all animal phyla.
immune priming, bacteria, invertebrate, ctenophore, basal metazoan, adaptive plasticity
Specific immune priming in the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi
Soren Bolte,1,† Olivia Roth,1 Eva E. R. Philipp,2 Julia Saphorster,2 Philip Rosenstiel,2 and Thorsten B. H. Reusch1
2013 Dec 23
The marine clam Meretrix petechialis is an important economic shellfish species in Northwestern Pacific, but little is known about its phylogeographical pattern. Here, we analyzed 311 samples from 22 locations along the northwestern Pacific using combined profiling of one mitochondrial gene (the first subunit of cytochrome coxidase, COI) and one nuclear DNA marker (the internal transcribed spacer region 1, ITS-1) to investigate contemporary genetic structure and reconstruct phylogenetic history of this species. The results revealed that two distinct phylogeographic lineages dominated marginal seas—the East China Sea (ECS) and the South China Sea (SCS) respectively. The estimation of divergence time between two lineages was 2.1-3.8 Ma, corresponding to a period of the early Pleistocene to late Pliocene. The vicariance of the two lineages was connected to the historical isolation of marginal seas and sea surface temperature (SST) gradient, pointing that SST might play an important role in maintaining phylogeographical patterns of M. petachialis. Significant overlaps between two lineages were observed in 23° to 29° N, located at the adjacent area of the ECS and SCS, which might be promoted by the connectivity of China Coast Current. However, the influence of ocean currents on mixings between two lineages was limited. In comparison, significant relationships were found between genetic distances and geographic distances if the North and South populations were analyzed separately, result of which might be due to some small reciprocal, rotating flows along coastal areas and special geographical conditions.
Phylogeography of bivalve Meretrix petechialis in the Northwestern Pacific indicated by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data
Xiaoxuan Wang, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1 Lingfeng Kong, Conceptualization, Data curation, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing - original draft, Writing - review & editing,1,* Jun Chen, Formal analysis, Investigation,2 Akihiko Matsukuma, Data curation, Writing - review & editing,1 and Qi Li, Conceptualization, Data curation, Writing - review & editing1