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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:93685-90-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
The present opinion deals with the re‐evaluation of lecithins (E 322) when used as a food additive. Lecithins (E 322) is an authorised food additive in the EU according to Annex II and Annex III to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 on food additives, and have been previously evaluated by JECFA in 1973 and by the SCF in 1982. Among lecithins, phosphatidylcholine is hydrolysed in choline in the cytidine‐5‐diphosphate‐choline pathway in all cells of the body. Following the conceptual framework for the risk assessment of certain food additives re‐evaluated under Commission Regulation (EU) No 257/2010, the Panel concluded that there was no need for a numerical ADI for lecithins (E 322) and that there was no safety concern for the general population from more than 1 year of age at the refined exposure assessment for the reported uses of lecithins (E 322) as a food additive. The Panel further concluded that there is no safety concern for the exposure to the choline from lecithins (E 322) as a food additive at use and use levels reported by industry. For infants (from 12 weeks up to 11 months of age), the Panel concluded that there was no safety concern at the refined exposure assessment for the reported uses of lecithins (E 322) as a food additive and for the choline from lecithins (E 322) as a food additive at use and use levels reported by industry. For infants and young children consuming foods for special medical purposes, the Panel concluded that there was no safety concern with respect to the refined exposure assessment for the reported uses of lecithins (E 322) as a food additive and for exposure to choline resulting from these uses of lecithins (E 322).
Lecithins, E 322, CAS No 8002‐43‐5 (lecithins), CAS No 85711‐58‐6 (hydrolysed lecithins), phosphatidylcholine, choline
Re‐evaluation of lecithins (E 322) as a food additive
EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS), Alicja Mortensen, Fernando Aguilar, Riccardo Crebelli, Alessandro Di Domenico, Maria Jose Frutos, Pierre Galtier, David Gott, Ursula Gundert‐Remy, Claude Lambre, Jean‐Charles Leblanc, Oliver Lindtner, Peter Moldeus, Pasquale Mosesso, Agneta Oskarsson, Dominique Parent‐Massin, Ivan Stankovic, Ine Waalkens‐Berendsen, Rudolf Antonius Woutersen, Matthew Wright, Maged Younes, Leon Brimer, Andrea Altieri, Anna Christodoulidou, Federica Lodi, and Birgit Dusemund
In pharmaceutical formulations, phospholipids obtained from plant or animal sources and synthetic phospholipids are used. Natural phospholipids are purified from, e.g., soybeans or egg yolk using non-toxic solvent extraction and chromatographic procedures with low consumption of energy and minimum possible waste. Because of the use of validated purification procedures and sourcing of raw materials with consistent quality, the resulting products differing in phosphatidylcholine content possess an excellent batch to batch reproducibility with respect to phospholipid and fatty acid composition. The natural phospholipids are described in pharmacopeias and relevant regulatory guidance documentation of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). Synthetic phospholipids with specific polar head group, fatty acid composition can be manufactured using various synthesis routes. Synthetic phospholipids with the natural stereochemical configuration are preferably synthesized from glycerophosphocholine (GPC), which is obtained from natural phospholipids, using acylation and enzyme catalyzed reactions. Synthetic phospholipids play compared to natural phospholipid (including hydrogenated phospholipids), as derived from the number of drug products containing synthetic phospholipids, a minor role. Only in a few pharmaceutical products synthetic phospholipids are used. Natural phospholipids are used in oral, dermal, and parenteral products including liposomes. Natural phospholipids instead of synthetic phospholipids should be selected as phospholipid excipients for formulation development, whenever possible, because natural phospholipids are derived from renewable sources and produced with more ecologically friendly processes and are available in larger scale at relatively low costs compared to synthetic phospholipids.
Practical applications: For selection of phospholipid excipients for pharmaceutical formulations, natural phospholipids are preferred compared to synthetic phospholipids because they are available at large scale with reproducible quality at lower costs of goods. They are well accepted by regulatory authorities and are produced using less chemicals and solvents at higher yields. In order to avoid scale up problems during pharmaceutical development and production, natural phospholipid excipients instead of synthetic phospholipids should be selected whenever possible.
Emulsifier, Lecithin, Liposomes, Natural phospholipids, Phosphatidylcholine, Solubilizer, Synthetic phospholipids
The use of natural and synthetic phospholipids as pharmaceutical excipients*
Peter van Hoogevest and Armin Wendel