This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Centaurea solstitialis L.
6-acetyl-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene/Ethanone, 1-(7-methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-yl)-/Isolated from Asteraceae plants/Encecalin/1-(7-Methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromen-6-yl)ethanone
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
367.7±42.0 °C at 760 mmHg
HS Code Reference
Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:20628-09-5) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Insulin resistance (IR) plays a significant role in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the natural course of insulin sensitivity under NAFLD remained unclear. Accordingly, this study was designed to investigate the effect of NAFLD on insulin resistance. A total of 20,628 Korean men without homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR < 2.7) were followed-up for 5 years. They were serially checked for HOMA-IR to monitor the development of IR (HOMA-IR ≥ 2.7). The incidence rate of IR increased according to the degree of NAFLD (normal: 11.6%, mild: 28.8%, moderate to severe: 40.5%, P < 0.001). Cox proportional hazards model showed that HRs (95% CI) for IR increased proportionally to the degree of NAFLD (mild: 1.19 [1.02-1.39], moderate to severe: 1.32 [1.08-1.57]). IR was more potentially associated with the more progressive NAFLD than normal and milder state. In addition, NAFLD was the independent risk factor of the development of IR. These results suggest the potential availability of NAFLD as a predictor of IR.
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Insulin Resistance, HOMA-IR, HOMA-ß
The Risk for Insulin Resistance according to the Degree of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Korean Men
Jae-Hong Ryoo,1,* Hyun Pyo Hong,2,* Sung Keun Park,corresponding author3 Woo Taek Ham,4 and Ju Youn Chung5
Cholangiocarcinoma, including intra- and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, is a rare but highly lethal cancer. Despite effort in finding the risk factors of cholangiocarcinoma, the causes of most cholangiocarcinoma remain unknown. This study utilized a population-based case-control design using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan to assess the medical conditions associated with cholangiocarcinoma.
5,157 incident cases of cholangiocarcinoma diagnosed during 2004 to 2008 and 20,628 controls matched to the cases on sex, age, and time of diagnosis (reference date for the controls) were identified from the NHIRD. Medical risk factors were ascertained from the NHIRD for each individual. Conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between cholangiocarcinoma and each medical risk factor.
The results showed that factors associated with an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma included cholangitis, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, cirrhosis of liver, alcoholic liver disease, chronic non-alcoholic liver disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and peptic ulcer. In addition, sex and age differences were observed.
This study confirms the association between cholangiocarcinoma and several less established risk factors, including diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and peptic ulcer (proxy for the presence of Helicobacter Pylori). Future studies should focus on finding additional environmental and genetic causes of cholangiocarcinoma.
Medical Risk Factors Associated with Cholangiocarcinoma in Taiwan: A Population-Based Case-Control Study
Jeffrey S. Chang, 1 , * Chia-Rung Tsai, 1 and Li-Tzong Chen 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , *
Reduced thymic function causes poor immunological reconstitution in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The association between immune activation and thymic function in asymptomatic HIV-positive treatment-naive individuals has thus far not been investigated.
Aims and objectives
To optimise a five-colour flow cytometric assay for measurement of thymic function by measuring recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) in treatment-naive HIV-infected patients and healthy controls and correlate results with levels of immune activation, CD4 counts and viral load.
Blood obtained from 53 consenting HIV-positive individuals and 32 controls recruited from HIV prevention and testing clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. RTEs were measured (CD3+/CD4+/CD45RA+/CD31+/CD62L+) and levels were correlated with CD4 counts of HIV-infected individuals, log viral load and levels of immune activation (CD8+/CD38+ T-cells).
HIV-infected individuals had reduced frequencies of RTEs when compared to controls (p = 0.0035). Levels of immune activation were inversely correlated with thymic function (p = 0.0403), and the thymic function in HIV-infected individuals showed no significant correlation with CD4 counts (p = 0.31559) and viral load (p = 0.20628).
There was impaired thymic function in HIV-infected individuals, which was associated with increased levels of immune activation. The thymic dysfunction was not associated with CD4 counts and viral load. Immune activation may result in inflammatory damage to the thymus and subsequent thymic dysfunction, and CD4 counts and viral load may not necessarily reflect thymic dysfunction in HIV.
Immune activation is associated with decreased thymic function in asymptomatic, untreated HIV-infected individuals
Thandiwe Manjati,corresponding author1,2 Bongani Nkambule,2,3 and Hayley Ipp1,2