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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:93106-60-6) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Antibiotic therapy often fails to eliminate a fraction of transiently refractory bacteria, causing relapses and chronic infections. Multiple mechanisms can induce such persisters with high antimicrobial tolerance in vitro, but their in vivo relevance remains unclear. Using a fluorescent growth rate reporter, we detected extensive phenotypic variation of Salmonella in host tissues. This included slow-growing subsets as well as well-nourished fast-growing subsets driving disease progression. Monitoring of Salmonella growth and survival during chemotherapy revealed that antibiotic killing correlated with single-cell division rates. Nondividing Salmonella survived best but were rare, limiting their impact. Instead, most survivors originated from abundant moderately growing, partially tolerant Salmonella. These data demonstrate that host tissues diversify pathogen physiology, with major consequences for disease progression and control.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phenotypic Variation of Salmonella in Host Tissues Delays Eradication by Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Beatrice Claudi 1, Petra Sprote 2, Anna Chirkova 1, Nicolas Personnic 1, Janine Zankl 3, Nura Schurmann 1, Alexander Schmidt 4, Dirk Bumann 5
2014 Aug 14
Haemophilus parasuis is an early colonizer of the porcine upper respiratory tract and is the etiological agent of Glasser’s disease. The factors responsible for H. parasuis colonization and systemic infection are not yet well understood, while prevention and control of Glasser’s disease continues to be challenging. Recent studies on innate immunity to H. parasuis have demonstrated that porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) are able to differentially up-regulate several genes related to inflammation and phagocytosis, and several pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced by porcine cells upon exposure to H. parasuis. The susceptibility of H. parasuis strains to phagocytosis by PAMs and the bactericidal effect of complement are influenced by the virulent phenotype of the strains. While non-virulent strains are susceptible to phagocytosis and complement, virulent strains are resistant to both. However, in the presence of specific antibodies against H. parasuis, virulent strains become susceptible to phagocytosis. More information is still needed, though, in order to better understand the host immune responses to H. parasuis. Antimicrobials are commonly used in the swine industry to help treat and control Glasser’s disease. Some of the common antimicrobials have been shown to reduce colonization by H. parasuis, which may have implications for disease dynamics, development of effective immune responses and immunomodulation. Here, we provide the current state of research on innate and adaptive immune responses to H. parasuis and discuss the potential effect of enrofloxacin on the development of a protective immune response against H. parasuis infection.
Haemophilus Parasuis: Infection, Immunity and Enrofloxacin
Nubia Macedo 1, Albert Rovira 2, Montserrat Torremorell 3
2015 Oct 28
The environmental and human health risks of veterinary drugs are becoming public health issues. Enrofloxacin (EF) is an extensively used animal-specific antibacterial agent that leaves drug residues in the environment. This study investigated the proteomic response of the earthworm Eisenia fetida to EF exposure. Earthworms were exposed to EF in soil at 1-500mg·kg-1, and samples were collected at intervals during a 28 day period. The extracted proteins were separated by two dimensional electrophoresis to detect differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in EF-exposed earthworms. In total, 35 unique DEPs were found. These proteins were subjected to MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis and identified through comparison of their mass spectra with those in protein databases. The DEPs were grouped on the basis of their function, into metabolism, stress-related, transport, transcription, and predicted/hypothetical protein categories. Knowledge of proteins that are induced or repressed by EF in earthworms could provide insight into mechanisms of sub-clinical physiological effects of xenobiotic residues in the environment, and may also help understand synergy between pollutants. As several DEPs in E. fetida showed similarity to human protein sequences, E. fetida has potential as an indicator species to assess the environmental and biological risks of drug residues.
Drug residue; Eisenia fetida; MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS; Toxicoproteomics; Two dimensional electrophoresis.
Effect of Enrofloxacin on the Proteome of Earthworms
Xiaoxu Lu 1, Yinsheng Li 2, Michelle Thunders 3, Cory Matthew 4, Xiuhong Wang 1, Xiaojie Ai 1, Xinchu Zhou 1, Jiangping Qiu 1
Enrofloxacin is an effective antibiotic with an MIC90 of 0.312 μg/mL for Mycoplasma bovis.