root of Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) Ktze
5-vinyloxazolidin-2-thione/Goitrin/Epigoitrin/5-vinyl-2-oxazolidinethione/Goitrine Epigoitrin/(5R)-5-Vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione/2-Oxazolidinethione, 5-ethenyl-, (5R)-/(R)-5-Ethenyl-2-oxazolidinethione/goitrin, (±)-isomer/R-5-vinyl-2-thiooxazolidone/2-Oxazolidinethione, 5-vinyl-, DL-/oxazolidine-2-thione, 5-vinyl-/R-5-Vinyl-2-oxazolidinethione/5-vinyloxazolidine-2-thione/DL-Goitrin/RS-Goitrin/5-Vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2-thione/2-Oxazolidinethione, 5-ethenyl-/R-GOITRIN/5-Vinyloxazolidone-2-thione/5-vinyl-2-thiooxazolidone/D-Goitrin
150.6±43.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:1072-93-1) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
“Several chemical and biological studies have revealed R,S-goitrin as the main bioactive constituent of Isatis indigotica Fort., responsible for antiviral antiendotoxin activity; however, few pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted. To comprehend the kinetics of R,S-goitrin and promote its curative application, a rapid and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed. The selected reaction monitoring transitions were m/z 130.0 → 70.0 for R,S-goitrin and m/z 181.1 → 124.0 for the internal standard in a positive-ion mode. The established UHPLC-MS/MS method achieved good linearity for R,S-goitrin at 10-2000 ng/mL. The intra- and interday accuracy levels were within ±9.7%, whereas the intraday and interday precision levels were <11.3%. The extraction recovery, stability and matrix effect were within acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic analysis of R,S-goitrin in rats after oral administration. Moreover, a total of six metabolites were structurally identified through UHPLC-Q/TOF-MS. The proposed metabolic pathways of R,S-goitrin in rats involve demethylation, acetylation, glutathionylation and oxygenation.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
LC-MS/MS; LC-Q/TOF-MS; R,S-goitrin; drug metabolism; pharmacokinetics
Metabolic profiles and pharmacokinetics of goitrin in rats through liquid chromatography combined with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.
Li J1, Shi Y2, Xu Y1, Yang L2, Wang Z2, Han H3, Wang R1.
The human G-protein-coupled bitter taste receptor T2R38 has recently been demonstrated to be expressed on peripheral blood neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. To further define a potential contribution of the T2R38 receptor in adaptive immune response, the objective of this study was to analyze its expression in resting and activated lymphocytes and T cell subpopulations. Freshly isolated PBMC from healthy donors were used for expression analysis by flow cytometry. Quantum™ MESF beads were applied for quantification in absolute fluorescence units. Activation methods of T cells were anti-CD3/CD28, phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) together with ionomycin. Lymphocytes from young donors expressed higher levels of T2R38 compared to the elderly. CD3+ T cells expressed higher levels that CD19+ B cells. Receptor expression followed T cell activation with an upregulation within 24 h and a peak at 72 h. Higher levels of T2R38 were produced in lymphocytes by stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 compared to PHA or PMA/ionomycin. Both subpopulations of CD4+ as well as CD8+ T cells were found to express the T2R38 receptor; this was higher in CD4+ than CD8+ cells; the amount of T2R38 in central and effector memory cells was higher as compared to naïve cells, although this was not statistically significant for CD8+ cells without prior activation by anti-CD3/CD28. Upon treatment of PBMC with the natural T2R38 agonist goitrin Calcium flux was activated in the lymphocyte population with functional T2R38 receptor at >20 μM which was completely blocked by phospholipase Cβ-2 inhibitor U73211. Further, goitrin selectively inhibited TNF-alpha secretion in PBMC with functional T2R38. This quantitative analysis of T2R38 expression in distinct PBMC subsets may provide a basis for understanding the significance of bitter compounds in immune modulation. Whether these findings can have implications for the treatment of inflammatory and immunologic disorders by bitter tasting pharmaceuticals or foods needs further investigation.
G protein coupled receptor (GPCR); T2R38; aging; hTAS2R38 gene; human T cells; human bitter taste receptor (T2R)
Human T2R38 Bitter Taste Receptor Expression in Resting and Activated Lymphocytes.
Tran HTT1,2, Herz C1, Ruf P1, Stetter R1, Lamy E1.
2018 Dec 11
Land plants are engaged in intricate communities with soil bacteria and fungi indispensable for plant survival and growth. The plant-microbial interactions are largely governed by specific metabolites. We employed a combination of lipid-fingerprinting, enzyme activity assays, high-throughput DNA sequencing and isolation of cultivable microorganisms to uncover the dynamics of the bacterial and fungal community structures in the soil after exposure to isothiocyanates (ITC) obtained from rapeseed glucosinolates. Rapeseed-derived ITCs, including the cyclic, stable goitrin, are secondary metabolites with strong allelopathic affects against other plants, fungi and nematodes, and in addition can represent a health risk for human and animals. However, the effects of ITC application on the different bacterial and fungal organisms in soil are not known in detail. ITCs diminished the diversity of bacteria and fungi. After exposure, only few bacterial taxa of the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Acidobacteria proliferated while Trichosporon (Zygomycota) dominated the fungal soil community. Many surviving microorganisms in ITC-treated soil where previously shown to harbor plant growth promoting properties. Cultivable fungi and bacteria were isolated from treated soils. A large number of cultivable microbial strains was capable of mobilizing soluble phosphate from insoluble calcium phosphate, and their application to Arabidopsis plants resulted in increased biomass production, thus revealing growth promoting activities. Therefore, inclusion of rapeseed-derived glucosinolates during biofumigation causes losses of microbiota, but also results in enrichment with ITC-tolerant plant microorganisms, a number of which show growth promoting activities, suggesting that Brassicaceae plants can shape soil microbiota community structure favoring bacteria and fungi beneficial for Brassica plants.
Disruption of microbial community composition and identification of plant growth promoting microorganisms after exposure of soil to rapeseed-derived glucosinolates.
Siebers M1, Rohr T1, Ventura M1, Schutz V1, Thies S2, Kovacic F2, Jaeger KE2,3, Berg M4,5, Dormann P1, Schulz M1.
2018 Jul 3