(3R,4S)-3-Hydroxy-3,4-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)dihydro-2(3H)-furanone/epi-Nortrachelogenin/2(3H)-Furanone, dihydro-3-hydroxy-3,4-bis[(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-, (3R,4S)-
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
609.2±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Sugarcane cultivars are polyploid interspecific hybrids of giant genomes, typically with 10-13 sets of chromosomes from 2 Saccharum species. The ploidy, hybridity, and size of the genome, estimated to have >10 Gb, pose a challenge for sequencing.
Here we present a gene space assembly of SP80-3280, including 373,869 putative genes and their potential regulatory regions. The alignment of single-copy genes in diploid grasses to the putative genes indicates that we could resolve 2-6 (up to 15) putative homo(eo)logs that are 99.1% identical within their coding sequences. Dissimilarities increase in their regulatory regions, and gene promoter analysis shows differences in regulatory elements within gene families that are expressed in a species-specific manner. We exemplify these differences for sucrose synthase (SuSy) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 2 gene families central to carbon partitioning. SP80-3280 has particular regulatory elements involved in sucrose synthesis not found in the ancestor Saccharum spontaneum. PAL regulatory elements are found in co-expressed genes related to fiber synthesis within gene networks defined during plant growth and maturation. Comparison with sorghum reveals predominantly bi-allelic variations in sugarcane, consistent with the formation of 2 “subgenomes” after their divergence ∼3.8-4.6 million years ago and reveals single-nucleotide variants that may underlie their differences.
This assembly represents a large step towards a whole-genome assembly of a commercial sugarcane cultivar. It includes a rich diversity of genes and homo(eo)logous resolution for a representative fraction of the gene space, relevant to improve biomass and food production.
allele, bioenergy, biomass, genome, polyploid
Assembly of the 373k gene space of the polyploid sugarcane genome reveals reservoirs of functional diversity in the world's leading biomass crop
Glaucia Mendes Souza,1 Marie-Anne Van Sluys,2 Carolina Gimiliani Lembke,1 Hayan Lee,3,4 Gabriel Rodrigues Alves Margarido,5 Carlos Takeshi Hotta,1 Jonas Weissmann Gaiarsa,2 Augusto Lima Diniz,1 Mauro de Medeiros Oliveira,1 Savio de Siqueira Ferreira,1,2 Milton Yutaka Nishiyama, Jr,1,6 Felipe ten-Caten,1 Geovani Tolfo Ragagnin,2 Pablo de Morais Andrade,1 Robson Francisco de Souza,7 Gianlucca Goncalves Nicastro,7 Ravi Pandya,8 Changsoo Kim,9,10 Hui Guo,9 Alan Mitchell Durham,11 Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro,12 Jisen Zhang,13 Xingtan Zhang,13 Qing Zhang,13 Ray Ming,13,14 Michael C Schatz,3,15 Bob Davidson,8 Andrew H Paterson,9 and David Heckerman8
In response to a growing demand for subnational and spatially explicit data on China’s future population, this study estimates China’s provincial population from 2010 to 2100 by age (0-100+), sex (male and female) and educational levels (illiterate, primary school, junior-high school, senior-high school, college, bachelor’s, and master’s and above) under different shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). The provincial projection takes into account fertility promoting policies and population ceiling restrictions of megacities that have been implemented in China in recent years to reduce systematic biases in current studies. The predicted provincial population is allocated to spatially explicit population grids for each year at 30 arc-seconds resolution based on representative concentration pathway (RCP) urban grids and historical population grids. The provincial projection data were validated using population data in 2017 from China’s Provincial Statistical Yearbook, and the accuracy of the population grids in 2015 was evaluated. These data have numerous potential uses and can serve as inputs in climate policy research with requirements for precise administrative or spatial population data in China.
Subject terms: Socioeconomic scenarios, Projection and prediction
Provincial and gridded population projection for China under shared socioeconomic pathways from 2010 to 2100
Yidan Chen,1 Fang Guo,1 Jiachen Wang,1 Wenjia Cai,corresponding author2,3,4 Can Wang,1,4 and Kaicun Wang5
Chemosensory genes play a central role in sensing chemical signals and guiding insect behavior. The Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, is one of the most important insect species in China in terms of resource production, and providing high-quality products for human consumption, and also serves as an important pollinator. Communication and foraging behavior of worker bees is likely linked to a complex chemosensory system. Here, we used transcriptome sequencing on adult A. c. cerana workers of different ages to identify the major chemosensory gene families and the differentially expressed genes(DEGs), and to investigate their expression profiles. A total of 109 candidate chemosensory genes in five gene families were identified from the antennal transcriptome assemblies, including 17 OBPs, 6 CSPs, 74 ORs, 10 IRs, and 2SNMPs, in which nineteen DEGs were screened and their expression values at different developmental stages were determined in silico. No chemosensory transcript was specific to a certain developmental period. Thirteen DEGs were upregulated and 6were downregulated. We created extensive expression profiles in six major body tissues using qRT-PCR and found that most DEGs were exclusively or primarily expressed in antennae. Others were abundantly expressed in the other tissues, such as head, thorax, abdomen, legs, and wings. Interestingly, when a DEG was highly expressed in the thorax, it also had a high level of expression in legs, but showed a lowlevel in antennae. This study explored five chemoreceptor superfamily genes using RNA-Seq coupled with extensive expression profiling of DEGs. Our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of odorant detection in the Asian honeybee and also serve as an extensive novel resource for comparing and investigating olfactory functionality in hymenopterans.
Antennal Transcriptome and Differential Expression Analysis of Five Chemosensory Gene Families from the Asian Honeybee Apis cerana cerana
Huiting Zhao,1 Yali Du,2 Pengfei Gao,2 Shujie Wang,2 Jianfang Pan,2 and Yusuo Jiang2,* J Joe Hull, Editor