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The proportions of T and B lymphocytes in the liver infiltrates of 23 patients with chronic active hepatitis have been determined. The results were compared with the values obtained from peripheral blood and with the presence of HB virus markers and alpha-fetoprotein in liver tissue. A group of patients with chronic liver disease other than chronic active hepatitis were studied as controls. In chronic active hepatitis the percentage of hepatic T cells was 49 +/- 8 SD (control patients 61 +/- 8) (P less than 0.01), whereas the percentage of B cells was 40 +/- 10 (control patients 18 +/- 8) (P less than 0.01). No correlation was observed between hepatic T and B cells and the presence of HB virus. The numbers of T cells in liver tissue was significantly higher, the numbers of B cells lower, in patients whose biopsies were positive for alpha-fetoprotein than in those whose biopsies were negative. In peripheral blood, only the patients with chronic active hepatitis and established cirrhosis presented lower absolute values of T cells, whereas surface immunoglobulin-positive lymphocytes were within the normal range.
Evaluation of T and B lymphocytes in liver infiltrates of patients with chronic active hepatitis.
S Fargion, G Sangalli, G Ronchi, and G Fiorelli
Epigenetics underlying refractory epilepsy is poorly understood, especially in patients without distinctive genetic alterations. DNA methylation may affect gene expression in epilepsy without affecting DNA sequences. Herein, we analyzed genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in brain tissues of 10 patients with refractory epilepsy using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation linked with sequencing and mRNA Sequencing. Diverse distribution of differentially methylated genes was found in X chromosome, while differentially methylated genes appeared rarely in Y chromosome. 62 differentially expressed genes, such as MMP19, AZGP1, DES, and LGR6 were correlated with refractory epilepsy for the first time. Although general trends of differentially enriched gene ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways in this study are consistent with previous researches, differences also exist in many specific gene ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathways. These findings provide a new genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation and gene expression in brain tissues of patients with refractory epilepsy, which may provide a basis for further study on the etiology and mechanisms of refractory epilepsy.
refractory epilepsy, human, epigenetics, DNA methylation, gene expression
New differentially expressed genes and differential DNA methylation underlying refractory epilepsy
Xi Liu,#1 Shu Ou,#1 Tao Xu,1 Shiyong Liu,2 Jinxian Yuan,1 Hao Huang,3 Lu Qin,1 Hui Yang,2 Lifen Chen,1 Xinjie Tan,1 and Yangmei Chen1
2016 Dec 27;
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.
To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus.
Materials and Methods:
Blood donors (2001-2003) were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data.
Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13%) were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116) was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16), HTLV-2 (n=5) and HTLV-untypable (n=3)].
HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.
HTLV, Blood donors, HTLV subtyping, HTLV1, HTLV2, T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2, Epidemiology of HTLV infection, Prevalence of HTLV
Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil
Marcia Poinho EncarnacÃo de Morais, 1 , 2 , 3 Cynara Melo Gato, 3 Lucinei Alves Maciel, 2 Pritesh Lalwani, 4 Cristovão Alves Costa, 5 and Jaila Dias Borges Lalwani 1