White crystalline powder
Fructus evodiae/ Euodiae fructus
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
381ºC at 760mmHg
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Personal Projective Equipment
For Reference Standard and R&D, Not for Human Use Directly.
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Acronychia pedunculata (family: Rutaceae) is one of the commonly used medicinal plants in Sri Lankan traditional medicine. Different parts of this plant are used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in the form of medicinal oils and herbal porridge.
AIM OF THE STUDY:
The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity and anti-inflammatory activity with their mechanisms and the acute toxicity of crude extracts of the fresh leaves of A. pedunculata for scientific validation of the ethnopharmacological claims for this plant. Further, attention has been focused on the isolation of active compounds from active fractions of the crude extracts.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
The acute anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous (AELA) and 70% ethanol crude extracts (EELA) and alkaloid fraction of A. pedunculata leaves were evaluated by the determination of inhibition of hind paw oedema induced by carrageenan in Wistar rats. Evolitrine was identified as the major alkaloid with significant bioactivities by column chromatography and NMR. The anti-nociceptive and anti-histamine activities of EELA and evolitrine were evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing and wheal formation tests respectively. In addition, in-vitro (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and in-vivo (lipid peroxidation assay) anti-oxidant activity, nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity and acute toxicity of EELA were evaluated.
Acute anti-inflammatory activity of AELA and EELA were dose-dependent. EELA was more active than AELA. The 200 mg/kg body weight (b. w.) dose of EELA was found as the minimum effective dose with maximum inhibition (78%) of oedema at 5th hour compared to the negative control (p < 0.05). Evolitrine was isolated and identified as an active anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound from active alkaloid fraction of EELA. Evolitrine showed activity enhancement when compared with crude EELA. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of evolitrine (50 mg/kg b. w.) were comparable to that of reference drugs indomethacin (5 mg/kg b. w) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg b. w.). The significant (p < 0.05) anti-histamine activity, DPPH scavenging in-vitro anti-oxidant activity, in-vivo lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity in-vivo, NO inhibitory activity of EELA as compared with relevant negative controls, were identified as probable mechanisms which mediated its anti-inflammatory action. Further, EELA showed a high safety margin in the limited dose acute toxicity study. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current study rationalize the usage of leaves of A. pedunculata in Sri Lankan traditional medicine as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent. Possible mechanisms mediating this activity included anti-histamine, anti-oxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Evolitrine is the major analgesic and anti-inflammatory compound isolated from the active alkaloid fraction of EELA. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acronychia pedunculata; Anti-inflammatory; Evolitrine; Rutaceae
Acute anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of crude extracts, alkaloid fraction and evolitrine from Acronychia pedunculata leaves.
Ratnayake WMKM1, Suresh TS2, Abeysekera AM3, Salim N4, Chandrika UG5.
2019 Jun 28;
The apomictic reproductive mode of Brachiaria (syn. Urochloa) forage species allows breeders to faithfully propagate heterozygous genotypes through seed over multiple generations. In Brachiaria, reproductive mode segregates as single dominant locus, the apospory-specific genomic region (ASGR). The AGSR has been mapped to an area of reduced recombination on Brachiaria decumbens chromosome 5. A primer pair designed within ASGR-BABY BOOM-like (BBML), the candidate gene for the parthenogenesis component of apomixis in Pennisetum squamulatum, was diagnostic for reproductive mode in the closely related species B. ruziziensis, B. brizantha, and B. decumbens. In this study, we used a mapping population of the distantly related commercial species B. humidicola to map the ASGR and test for conservation of ASGR-BBML sequences across Brachiaria species.
Dense genetic maps were constructed for the maternal and paternal genomes of a hexaploid (2n = 6x = 36) B. humidicola F1 mapping population (n = 102) using genotyping-by-sequencing, simple sequence repeat, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and transcriptome derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers. Comparative genomics with Setaria italica provided confirmation for x = 6 as the base chromosome number of B. humidicola. High resolution molecular karyotyping indicated that the six homologous chromosomes of the sexual female parent paired at random, whereas preferential pairing of subgenomes was observed in the apomictic male parent. Furthermore, evidence for compensated aneuploidy was found in the apomictic parent, with only five homologous linkage groups identified for chromosome 5 and seven homologous linkage groups of chromosome 6. The ASGR mapped to B. humidicola chromosome 1, a region syntenic with chromosomes 1 and 7 of S. italica. The ASGR-BBML specific PCR product cosegregated with the ASGR in the F1 mapping population, despite its location on a different carrier chromosome than B. decumbens.
The first dense molecular maps of B. humidicola provide strong support for cytogenetic evidence indicating a base chromosome number of six in this species. Furthermore, these results show conservation of the ASGR across the Paniceae in different chromosomal backgrounds and support postulation of the ASGR-BBML as candidate genes for the parthenogenesis component of apomixis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s12864-018-5392-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Apomixis, Apospory, Parthenogenesis, BABY BOOM, Aneuploidy, Segmental allopolyploidy, Genotyping-by-sequencing, Molecular karyotyping, Urochloa, Brachiaria
Translocation of a parthenogenesis gene candidate to an alternate carrier chromosome in apomictic Brachiaria humidicola
Margaret Worthington,corresponding author1,5 Masumi Ebina,2 Naoki Yamanaka,3 Christopher Heffelfinger,4 Constanza Quintero,1 Yeny Patricia Zapata,1 Juan Guillermo Perez,1 Michael Selvaraj,1 Manabu Ishitani,1 Jorge Duitama,1,6 Juan Fernando de la Hoz,1,7 Idupulapati Rao,1,8 Stephen Dellaporta,4 Joe Tohme,1 and Jacobo Arango1
2019 Jan 14.
Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene has been prepared by a simple one-step hydrothermal approach using hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) as single carbon and nitrogen source. In this hydrothermal process, HMTA pyrolyzes at high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O) during which graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with incorporation of nitrogen groups possesses unique structure including thin layer thickness, high surface area, mesopores and vacancies. These structural features and their synergistic effects could not only improve ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances but also promote the penetration of electrolyte. The N-doped graphene exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability, which demonstrate that the N-doped graphene with great potential to be an efficient electrode material. The experimental results provide a new hydrothermal route to synthesize N-doped graphene with potential application for advanced energy storage, as well as useful information to design new graphene materials.
In the past decade, graphene has attracted wide attentions due to its fascinating characters and broad applications1,2 such as in catalysis, water splitting, energy storage and solar cells. These applications of graphene are closely associated with their intrinsic two-dimensional (2-D) crystal structure formed by sp2 hybridized carbon1. In the past few years, many researchers have demonstrated that the physical and chemical properties of graphene could be tailored and improved by heteroatom doping on graphene sheets at edges, vacancies, pores and strained regions3,4. The doping of heteroatoms into the pristine graphene sheets would lead to structural and electronic disorders, which could further result in changes of graphene properties, including Fermi level, bandgap, localized electronic state, thermal stability, electrical conductivity, and magnetic property5. New or improved properties could be obtained by altering the type and content of various dopant atoms6,7.
Nitrogen (1s22s22p3)3 is the next element to carbon (1s22s22p2) in the periodic table with only one less valence electron, which possesses higher electronegativity of N (χ = 3.04) than that of C (χ = 2.55). The doping of N would create polarization in the sp2 carbon network, thereby further influence the chemical and physical properties of graphene. Previous reports demonstrated that N doping is efficient in tuning the characters of graphene materials: the bandgap opening and charge-carrier concentration could be induced by only 0.4 at% doping of graphitic N8; pyrrolic N-doping at the edge sites of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) would create strong magnetic moments9; the work function of graphene could be reduced by graphitic and pyridinic N-doping10,11. In this case, nitrogen doping is a useful route for decorating graphene because N-doping easily manipulates local electronic for the potential application including electronic devices8, biosensors12 and catalysts13. Moreover, the nitrogen doped local electronic structures allow for enhanced binding with ions in the solution which is beneficial for lithium ion batteries14. Nitrogen-doping would improve the pore affinity to aqueous electrolyte and reduce the electric resistance which would further promote the electrochemical performance of graphene electrode15,16. For example, nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets prepared by heat treatment of graphite oxide under an ammonia atmosphere at 800 °C exhibited a high reversible capacity 900 mAh/g at current of 42 mA/g17; nitrogen-doped holey graphene hollow microspheres synthesized by a template sacrificing method also exhibited high reversible capacities and rate performances18.
To date, N-doped graphene materials can be obtained by various methods including plasma method14, arc-discharge approach19, chemical vapor deposition (CVD)20 and thermal anealing method21,22. Among these methods, nitrogen-containing functional groups could be doped by reacting with nitrogen-containing reagents (urea, NH3 and nitric acid)23,24 or through carbonizing/activating of nitrogen-rich carbon precursors, such as pentachloropyridine25, polypyrrole26 and pyrimidine27. These methods either require high quality equipment or involve several steps during synthesis process, which are obstacles for large scale fabrication. One step hydrothermal carbonization is a traditional method which is an important technique for the preperation of various carbonaceous materials and hybrids. Recent studies have shown that hydrothermal method is an efficient method for large-scale preparation of graphene: graphene oxide(GO) prepared by oxidation of graphite powder according to the modified Hummers’ method was further reduced by a nitrogen containing reductant and finally transferred into N-doped graphene28,29.
In this paper, we developed a novel one-step hydrothermal method using HMTA as single carbon and nitrogen source. Briefly, HMTA pyrolyzes in high temperature and the N-doped graphene subsequently self-assembles on the surface of MgO particles (formed by the Mg powder reacting with H2O). During this in-situ approach, graphene synthesis and nitrogen doping are simultaneously achieved. The as-synthesized graphene with nitrogen-containing functional groups possesses an average thickness of 4-10 nm with interconnected mesoporous system. The high surface area, mesopores and vacancies of the N-doped graphene are particularly beneficial for the reversibly storage of lithium ions. These structural features and their synergistic effects would promote ions and electrons transportation with nanometer-scale diffusion distances as well as be favorable to the penetration of electrolyte. Extensive research carried out on lithium ion batteries demonstrate that the N-doped graphene electrode exhibits high reversible capacity, superior rate capability as well as long-term cycling stability (above 600 mAh/g after 50 cycles at current of 100 mA/g, above 500 mAh/g after 150 cycles at current of 200 mA/g), which suggest its great potential to be an efficient electrode material candidate.
One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of Nitrogen-doped graphene as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries
Zheng Xing,1 Zhicheng Ju,a,1 Yulong Zhao,1 Jialu Wan,1 Yabo Zhu,1 Yinghuai Qiang,b,1 and Yitai Qian2
2016 May 17