This product is isolated and purified from the herbs of Isodon japonicus
Soluble in Chloroform,Dichloromethane,Ethyl Acetate,DMSO,Acetone,etc.
550.8±50.0 °C at 760 mmHg
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Scientific Session of the 16th World Congress of Endoscopic Surgery, Jointly Hosted by Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) & Canadian Association of General Surgeons (CAGS), Seattle, Washington, USA, 11-14 April 2018: Poster Abstracts
The Cook Islands are considered the “gateway” for human colonization of East Polynesia, the final chapter of Oceanic settlement and the last major region occupied on Earth. Indeed, East Polynesia witnessed the culmination of the greatest maritime migration in human history. Perennial debates have critiqued whether Oceanic settlement was purposeful or accidental, the timing and pathways of colonization, and the nature and extent of postcolonization voyaging—essential for small founding groups securing a lifeline between parent and daughter communities. Centering on the well-dated Tangatatau rockshelter, Mangaia, Southern Cook Islands, we charted the temporal duration and geographic spread of exotic stone adze materials—essential woodworking tools found throughout Polynesia— imported for more than 300 y beginning in the early AD 1300s. Using a technique requiring only 200 mg of sample for the geochemical analysis of trace elements and isotopes of fine-grained basalt adzes, we assigned all artifacts to an island or archipelago of origin. Adze material was identified from the chiefly complex on the Austral Islands, from the major adze quarry complex on Tutuila (Samoa), and from the Marquesas Islands more than 2,400 km distant. This interaction is the only dated example of down-the-line exchange in central East Polynesia where intermediate groups transferred commodities attesting to the interconnectedness and complexity of social relations fostered during postsettlement voyaging. For the Cook Islands, this exchange may have lasted into the 1600s, at least a century later than other East Polynesian archipelagos, suggesting that interarchipelago interaction contributed to the later development of social hierarchies.
Polynesian archaeology, geochemical sourcing, adzes, voyaging, exchange
Cook Island artifact geochemistry demonstrates spatial and temporal extent of pre-European interarchipelago voyaging in East Polynesia
Marshall I. Weisler,a,1 Robert Bolhar,a,b Jinlong Ma,c,d Emma St Pierre,a Peter Sheppard,e Richard K. Walter,f Yuexing Feng,d Jian-xin Zhao,d and Patrick V. Kirchg,1
2016 Jul 19
Colonial breeding in birds provides protection from predators and may be particularly important when birds have to cope with an invasive predator. The probability of nest predation in a colony can vary depending on several factors, such as the nest’s location in the colony and the level of aggregation of nests. We studied the nesting success of colonial great crested grebes and monitored the occurrence of the non-native invasive American mink in the colony. From among 92 grebe nests, 54.3% were successful. The daily survival rate (DSR) of grebe nests was positively affected by the increasing distance between the nest and lake shoreline, and negatively affected by the increasing distance between the nest and the five nearest grebe nests. The probability of mink occurrence in the colony increased with consecutive days of the breeding season and decreased with increasing distance from the lake shoreline. The DSR of grebe nests decreased with the increasing probability of mink occurrence along the shoreline distance gradient and the day of the breeding season. The results of the study confirm the impact of the American mink on waterbirds during the breeding season but also indicate that large breeding colonies are partially safe from mink predation, and that nest accessibility and the dilution effect influence the probability of nest survival. Our data suggest that the limited access to safe breeding sites on large lakes that can supply adult grebes and their chicks with food may affect bird productivity and population numbers at the landscape level.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1007/s00442-018-4270-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus, Breeding ecology, Coloniality, Predation, Invasive species, American mink, Neovison vison
Spatio-temporal variation in nesting success of colonial waterbirds under the impact of a non-native invasive predator
Marcin Brzeziński,1 Piotr Chibowski,1 Joanna Gornia,1 Grzegorz Gorecki,1 and Andrzej Zalewskicorresponding author2