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provides coniferyl ferulate(CAS#:37710-13-7) MSDS, density, melting point, boiling point, structure, formula, molecular weight etc. Articles of coniferyl ferulate are included as well.>> amp version: coniferyl ferulate
Varroa destructor infestation of Apis mellifera colonies carries and/or promotes replication of honey bee viruses like the Deformed wing virus, the Varroa destructor virus-1, the Acute bee paralysis virus, the Israeli acute bee paralysis virus and the Kashmir bee virus that have been well described and characterized; but viruses exclusively associated with Varroa were not found. To look for viruses that may associate with- or infect V. destructor we performed deep sequencing (RNA-seq) of RNA extracted from honey bees and mites in Varroa-infested untreated colonies. Comparative bioinformatic analysis of the two separate contig-assemblies generated from the sequences’ reads annotated using Blastx enabled identification of new viruses unique to Varroa and absent in A. mellifera: an Iflavirus and a virus with homology to Ixodes scapularis associated virus 2, that we named Varroa destructor virus 2 (VDV-2) and 3(VDV-3), respectively. We validated these findings sequencing the mite- and honey bee-viromes and in separate mites and honey bees randomly sampled. The complete genomes of VDV-2 and VDV-3 bear 9576 nucleotides and 4202 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of VDV-3 suggests that it belongs to a new group of viruses. Our results open venues for investigating the pathogenicity of these V. destructor viruses.
Two novel viruses associated with the Apis mellifera pathogenic mite Varroa destructor
Sofia Levin,1,2 Noa Sela,3 and Nor Chejanovskya,1
Astaxanthin is a powerful antioxidant, because it neutralizes free radicals and plays a vital role in the prevention of human diseases. The objective of this work was to develop an isotonic beverage (IB) of orange-red color, using an astaxanthin oleoresin emulsion (AOE) that is dispersible in water. This was carried out in order to simulate the color of commercial isotonic beverages (CIB) prepared from artificial pigments. The size of the AOE micelles ranged from 0.15 to 7.60 µm2. The color difference (ΔE) was similar for the samples exposed to dark as well as light conditions. The samples subjected to light stress showed pigment degradation after seven days, followed by a decrease in the concentration of astaxanthin; whereas, the samples exposed to dark conditions remained stable for seven days and then showed a decrease in the concentration of astaxanthin (this decrease ranged from 65% to 76% when compared to the initial content) after a period of 91 days. For the astaxanthin oleoresin (AO) and AOE, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values reached 5224 and 1968 µmol of trolox equivalents (TE)/100 g, respectively. When exposed to light conditions, the addition of AOE in the IB led to its rapid degradation, while it remained stable in the samples exposed to the dark conditions.
isotonic drinks, oleoresin astaxanthin, emulsion, stability, antioxidant
Isotonic Beverage Pigmented with Water-Dispersible Emulsion from Astaxanthin Oleoresin
Pedro Cerezal Mezquita, Carolina Espinosa alvarez,* Jenifer Palma Ramirez, Waldo BugueNo MuNoz, Francisca Salinas Fuentes, and Maria del Carmen Ruiz-Dominguez Benoît Schoefs, Academic Editor
Knowing an item’s category helps us predict its unknown properties. Previous studies suggest that when asked to evaluate the probability of an unknown property, people tend to consider only an item’s most likely category, ignoring alternative categories. In the present study, property prediction took the form of either a probability rating or a speeded, binary-choice judgment. Consistent with past findings, subjects ignored alternative categories in their probability ratings. However, their binary-choice judgments were influenced by alternative categories. This novel finding suggests that the way category knowledge is used in prediction depends critically on the form of the prediction.
Influence of multiple categories on the prediction of unknown properties
Michael F. Verde Michael F. Verde, Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Gregory L. Murphy Gregory L. Murphy, Department of Psychology, New York University; Brian H. Ross
2006 Apr 3.